The oculist Lazar Markovich Zamenhof lived in the Russian Belostok and firmly believed that the conflicts between the Germans, the Poles, the Jews and the Russians who inhabited the city were caused only by their lack of a common language. “If all the peoples of the world understood each other, then war would end on the planet and prosperity would begin,” the utopian doctor reasoned. Unlike many other dreamers, Zamenhof got down to business, and by 1887 made up a simple and convenient language "Lingua Internacia". Another name for Zamenhof’s invention was fixed: the doctor’s pseudonym in his language - “Esperanto”, which means “Hopeful”. A language based on 900 English and Latin roots quickly became fashionable. Books were published in Esperanto and broadcasting was conducted. The symbol of the new language was the green star. Zamenhof died in 1917 and did not see what happened to his brainchild further.
Esperanto was raised on a shield in the young USSR as the future language of the world proletarian republic. But since Lev Trotsky was the main follower of the world revolution, happy times for Esperanto ended with his fall. During the Stalinist repression, most active Esperantists were convicted as agents of a wide range of intelligence services. Incomprehensible to the investigators letters sometimes appeared in the charges as a spy code. At the same time, Esperantoists were also destroyed in Nazi Germany, but as members of a communist conspiracy.
In the middle of the 20th century, Esperanto experienced an easy renaissance, but was perceived only as a hobby of a few eccentrics — English became the language of international communication. The emergence of the Internet, sharpened by the same English, finally turned Esperanto into exotic. It is difficult to say how many people today speak on the invention of Dr. Zamenhof. Esperantists themselves claim that there are two million of them with the charming assumption of plus or minus million. Most of their time is spent writing articles in the Wikipedia segment of Esperanto. They are there now more than in Hindi or Hebrew. However, this indicator is artificial, like the language itself - there are much more Indians and Jews in the world.