To get the throne, Hatshepsut was removed from the affairs of the young Thutmose III. The procedure for inheritance suggested that Hatshepsut should become the legal ruler. However, it was Thutmose who was publicly proclaimed the oracle of Amon; historians believe that the cause of this scenario was the absence of male heirs from Thutmose I. According to historians, Thutmosis III reigned for about three years. It is characteristic that his name is practically not mentioned in the documents until the death of the queen. His influence on state administration remained minimal.
At first, Hatshepsut’s position on the throne was precarious. She encouraged the construction of sculptures and bas-reliefs telling about the divine nature of the power of Pharaoh. The sculptural portraits of the queen are depicted in a men's headdress, in addition, she had to wear a fake beard and hide her figure.
During the reign of the female pharaoh architecture is developing. On her initiative, majestic temples are being built, the destroyed monuments gain a second life. For the whole 9 years, the burial temple Hatshepsut was built. The architect was Senmut, a native of the lower strata of the population, presumably the lover of the queen. The building is carved into the rock and consists of three terraces. They are connected by ramps.
Memorial temple of hatshepsut
The size of the temple was impressive; he did not resemble other ancient Egyptian buildings. There were huge statues of Hatshepsut, and the reliefs told about the life of Pharaoh, her military and trade expeditions. The entrance to the temple was decorated with a portico. After Thutmose III came to power, the images of the queen in this and other temples were destroyed; The new Pharaoh sought to destroy every reminder of Hatshepsut. Until the XIX century, in the community of historians, its rule was practically not discussed.
The queen spent huge funds on the restoration of settlements of Lower Egypt, which were the main trading points of the Mediterranean. In addition, she outfitted a merchant expedition to the land of Punt in East Africa. The expedition turned out to be profitable - gold here was worth several times cheaper than copper. Subsequently, the Egyptian ships were sent here every six months, in addition, it was planned to install a high statue of the queen.
Hatshepsut sold out abandoned arable land and restored the canals. In general, money from the treasury disappeared at lightning speed; for example, dramatically increased the cost of maintaining the army.
Historians have long argued about whether a female pharaoh participated in the campaigns. In the end, experts concluded that Hatshepsut led military expeditions to Palestine, Syria and Nubia.
Despite the false beard and men's suit, Hatshepsut were not alien to women's tricks. Scientists suggest that she used a cosmetic with hazardous substances. They could cause chronic diseases. Archaeologists have also determined that the queen died because of an unsuccessfully extracted tooth.