Everyone can kings! Perhaps the phrase would very harmoniously sound from the mouth of Charlemagne, the very one, on whose behalf the title of the title originated. To crush the Saxons, to subjugate the Bavars, to gather lands into a vast empire - Karl didn’t care. And what could a king be without a royal residence? Charlemagne built himself a grand Palatinate in Aachen, from which, however, there remained only a tower and a chapel. On the former grandeur of the residence of the first emperor of the Holy Roman Empire will tell Catherine Astafieva.
Charlemagne is rightfully considered one of the most prominent European rulers. He began his "career" as the king of the Franks, in 774 conquered the Lombards, in 778 took the oath of loyalty from the barbarian nobility, by 785 finally subjugated the Saxons and forced them to be baptized. In 800, he was solemnly crowned in Rome and received the title of emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. However, Charlemagne was not only a wise strategist and a brave warrior, but also a patron of science and the arts. The time of his reign is often called the "Carolingian Renaissance." It is reflected in the architecture.
How to wipe the nose of Rome
Charlemagne set to build a residence that would not be inferior in beauty and luxury to the palaces of Rome. For construction, he chose the town of Aachen, where, according to one version, the future emperor was born.
In 794, Charles began the construction of a huge palace. The task was assigned to architect Odon of Metz. In the plan were buildings for the royal family, courtiers and officials, around the hot springs should have been located baths, a huge swimming pool for 100 people and a chapel. On the territory of the residence, Karl ordered to build a school to teach his assistants to read. It also housed an extensive library, the formation of which the monks were engaged. In the 798th residence was completed. In 807, Aachen became the capital of the empire.
Plan of the Aachen Palace
Remnants of past greatness
The palace chapel is the only building of the entire ensemble, which has been preserved in a relatively untouchable form. It was here that Charlemagne himself was buried, whom the inhabitants of Aachen are honored as the patron saint of the city. Beginning with Otto the Great for more than 600 years, Roman-German emperors were crowned in this chapel. They sat on the throne of Charles with marble inlays, which has survived to the present day.
The octagonal chapel is built symmetrically and surmounted by a dome. Initially, the dome was decorated with frescoes, which later laid mosaics. As the Frankish scholar Eginhard argued, during the construction of Charlemagne the marble ended. Then he turned to the Pope and asked for permission to dismantle the monuments in Ravenna and Rome in order to obtain the necessary material.
In general, the architectural style of the chapel is close to the Byzantine. It is built into the Aachen Cathedral, which was consecrated in 804. Additional buildings around the chapel already bear the obvious imprint of Gothic.
Over its more than thousand-year history, the cathedral has been rebuilt and reconstructed several times. By the XIX century, the situation became a stalemate: numerous changes disfigured the building. Then the Society of Charlemagne took up the business. With the support of Frederick Wilhelm IV and Wilhelm I, they managed to restore the interior of the cathedral and its walls. Marble pillars reappeared, which were ukrakaeni French and returned at the end of the XVIII century. Inside the choir appeared 14 statues. A new altar was consecrated on the spot where the German rulers were crowned. Restored and mosaic.
Stained Glass of Aachen Cathedral
Where is Charlemagne buried?
Disputes around the tomb of Charlemagne do not subside. In the middle of the cathedral lies a stone with the inscription "Carolo Magno", but the ashes of the emperor do not rest beneath it. According to the monastery chronicles, in 1000 Charles’s burial was uncovered, where they found a body in white robes sitting in a chair with a crown on its head and a scepter in its hands. After this, the remains of the emperor were repeatedly laid in different coffins, and finally, in the 18th century, the remains were transferred to the sacristy. The chair, on which the late Charlemagne the Great was allegedly sitting, was used by emperors at the coronation.
Throne of Charlemagne
The son of Charlemagne, Louis the Pious, stayed in the palace infrequently - he spent time here in the winter before Easter. Subsequent emperors Aachen did not complain at all. The palace of Charles the Emperor Otto II fell in love. But most of the time the Pfalz was monitored by the counts of Lorraine.
By the beginning of the XIV century the palace lay in ruins. Residents of the city erected a city hall in the place of the throne hall, into which they built the surviving tower of the palace. In the 16th century, the royal coronation was transferred to Frankfurt, so that the once luxurious city of Aachen fell into disrepair.