The first section of the Commonwealth
On February 19, 1772, a secret convention on the first section was signed in Vienna. Before this, on February 6, 1772, in St. Petersburg, a secret agreement was concluded between Prussia and Russia. This was done so that the Poles, separated from each other, did not have time to unite before the seizure of territories. The executive body of the Bar Confederation was forced to leave Austria after joining the Prussian-Russian alliance. But the confederation forces did not lay down their arms. Each fortress, where its military units were located, lasted as long as possible. The Confederates pinned their hopes on France and England, but they stood aside until the very end, until the partition did not occur.
At the same time, having entered the territory of the Commonwealth, the Russian, Prussian, and Austrian troops occupied areas divided among them by agreement. Soon the Manifesto on the section was announced. The Section Convention was ratified on September 22, 1772. The territory of 92 thousand km ² with a population of 1 million 300 thousand people passed under the authority of the Russian crown.
The second section of the Commonwealth
After the first partition of Poland, a “patriotic” party emerged, which wanted a break with Russia. This party was in favor of developing the economy and building up its own military power. It was opposed by the “royal” and “hetman” parties, which were set up to union with Russia. The Russian Empire entered the war with the Ottoman Empire in 1787, by which time the patriot party prevailed in the Sejm and Prussia provoked the Sejm to break with Russia. The Pospolit was brought to such a helpless state that she had to make a disastrous alliance with Prussia, her enemy. The conditions of this union were such that the next two sections of the Commonwealth were inevitable.
The Constitution, adopted on May 3, 1791, entailed interference from neighboring Russia, which feared the restoration of the Commonwealth in 1772. The “hetman” party supporting Russia created the Targowitz Confederation, gained the support of Austria and opposed the Polish “patriotic” party that supported the unfavorable Constitution. In battles, the Lithuanian and Polish armies were defeated, supporters of the constitution left the country, and in July 1792 the king joined the Targowitz Confederation. January 23, 1793 Prussia and Russia signed a convention on the second division of the Commonwealth, according to which Russia received a total of about 250,000 square kilometers and up to 4 million inhabitants. In 1793, Catherine II issued a manifesto "On the accession of the Polish regions to Russia."
The third section of the Commonwealth
The defeat of the Kosciuszko uprising in 1794, which involved those who disagreed with the division of the country, played a final role in the division and liquidation of the Polish-Lithuanian state. On October 24, 1795, the member countries of the section defined their new frontiers. As a result of the third section, Russia received Lithuanian and Polish lands with a total area of 120 thousand km² and a population of 1.2 million.
In 1797, the participants in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth section signed the “Petersburg Convention”, which included regulations on Polish debts and the Polish king, as well as the obligation that the monarchs of the contracting parties would never use the name “Kingdom of Poland” in their titles.
Napoleon managed to restore the Polish state for some time in the form of the Duchy of Warsaw under the crown of the Saxon king, but after its fall in 1814, Russia, Prussia and Austria once again divided Poland.