On August 10, 1498, Giovanni Caboto, better known as John Cabot, who opened Canada, received a 10 pound reward from King Henry VII of England.
Today we decided to recall such awards and similar ridiculous transactions.
On June 24, 1497, the Matthew caravel, under the command of Cabot, moored to the island of Newfoundland, which today is the territory of the northern neighbor of the United States. John Cabot was an Italian navigator, compatriot of Columbus, but was in the service of the English king Henry VII. Like his great compatriot, Cabot led to the shores of Canada with the same goal - to find a sea route to Asia, or rather, to Japan, where rumors about the riches were then in Europe. But the captain did not reach his goal. And the English king, angry about the fact that Cabot did not open a short path to wealth, awarded the sailor for discovering a new Earth with only ten pounds sterling.
As the brave captain later told about the territory he discovered, “in some places the sea was so full of fish that the team took it out with buckets directly from the deck.” “The Newfoundland Bank,” dubbed the coastal waters of Cabot, soon became a permanent fishing ground for British fishermen. After his first voyage, the captain and his son Sebastian made several more trips to Canada, but did not find their way to fabulous Japan, China and India. And although the newest researchers questioned the fact that Cabot was the first European seaman to set foot on the shores of Newfoundland, in the history of Canada he remained forever. In the center of Montreal, Captain Cabot and the ship "Matthew", on which he first sailed to these shores, stands a beautiful monument. On the pedestal the name of the seaman is stamped in two languages.
Dutch Protestants believed that the American land belonged to its native inhabitants - the Indians. Who wanted to settle in America, had to submit to the Dutch government a document that the Indians agree on this.
Following this rule, Peter Minute, governor of the New Netherlands, in 1626 paid a bag of beads and fish hooks to the Indians for the territory of Manhattan Island: all together cost about 60 guilders. Someone thought that in the twentieth century, this gift would cost $ 24. And now in all the books it is written that Minight bought Manhattan for $ 24. But the dollar then cost much more than it does now; at current prices it will be less than a thousand dollars. In any case, the Dutch have not lost. Now this land is estimated at tens of billions of dollars. But even then it was clear that the business was profitable: in 1626 alone, the West India Company gained trading in those places for 25 thousand guilders.
The Dutch, who were engaged in trade all their life, believed that they bought Manhattan and now the land belongs to them. And the Indians did not understand how it was possible - to buy and sell the land on which people live. They thought that Minute gave them all sorts of valuable things just for friendship. Other local inhabitants, raritany, thus sold the island of Staten Island five times to different buyers. The most ridiculous that Minuit bought Manhattan not from its inhabitants, but from the Canarsi tribe, who lived in the area of modern Brooklyn.
In a word, if there were as many lawyers in America as there are now, Minute would have been harassed by the courts. But for those times it was quite an honest deal. In the same 1626, a settlement in Manhattan, which arose at the site of the future New York, received the status of a city and the name - New Amsterdam.
Larisa Savitskaya - a woman who survived a plane crash and a fall from a height of 5200 meters, and received 75 rubles of compensation
On August 24, 1981, the An-24 aircraft, on which the Savitsky spouses were flying, at an altitude of 5220 m collided with a Tu-16 military bomber. There were several reasons for the catastrophe: poor consistency of military and civilian dispatchers, the crew of the An-24 did not report evasion from the main route, and the crew of the Tu-16 reported that it took an altitude of 5100 m 2 minutes before it actually happened .
After the collision, the crews of both aircraft died. As a result of the collision, the An-24 lost wings with gas tanks and the top of the fuselage. The rest during the fall broke several times. At the time of the disaster, Larisa Savitskaya was sleeping in her seat in the tail section of the plane. I woke up from a strong blow and a sudden burn (the temperature instantly dropped from 25 ° C to −30 ° C). After another break in the fuselage, which passed right in front of her chair, Larisa threw herself into the aisle, waking up, she got to the nearest chair, climbed and squeezed into it, still not wearing her seat belt. Larisa herself later claimed that at that moment she remembered an episode from the movie “Miracles Still Happen”, where the heroine sank into a chair when the plane crashed and survived.
Part of the body of the aircraft planned for birchwood, which softened the blow. According to subsequent studies, the entire fall of the wreckage of an aircraft measuring 3 meters in width by 4 meters in length, where Savitskaya was, took 8 minutes. Savitskaya was unconscious for several hours. When she woke up on the ground, Larisa saw a chair in front of her with the body of a dead husband. She received a number of serious injuries, but could move independently.
Two days later, it was discovered by rescuers, who were greatly surprised when after two days they only came across bodies of the dead, they met a living person. Larissa was covered with paint flying from the fuselage, and with her hair heavily matted with wind. While waiting for rescuers, she built herself a temporary shelter from the wreckage of an airplane, warming herself with covers from the seats and hiding from mosquitoes with a plastic bag. All these days it was raining. When it ended, she waved rescue aircraft flying past, but they, not expecting to find survivors, took her for a geologist from a camp located nearby. Larisa, the bodies of her husband and two more passengers were found the last of all victims of the disaster.
Despite numerous injuries, Larisa did not receive a disability: according to Soviet standards, the severity of her individual injuries did not allow her to receive a disability, and to receive it all together was not possible. Later, Larisa was paralyzed, but she was able to recover, although she couldn’t do many jobs and was forced to interrupt herself with odd jobs and even starve.
In modern Russia, they did not hide the fact of the crash. The unusual fate attracted the attention of the press, there were numerous interviews with Savitskaya. She became the heroine of television programs of several television companies.
Larisa Savitskaya twice listed in the Russian edition of the Guinness Book of Records:
like a man who survived a fall from a maximum height
as a person who received the minimum amount of compensation for physical damage - 75 rubles.
According to the regulations of Gosstrakh in the USSR, it was supposed to pay 300 rubles for damages for the dead and 75 rubles for the survivors of the plane crash.
Alaska For Sale
As early as the 18th century, Alaska completely belonged to the Russian Empire. However, owning a remote and unsuitable territory, which turned out to be the northern lands, became burdensome. "Sell - the surest way!" Long time did not think. The signing of the treaty took place on March 30, 1867 in Washington.
Many of our citizens lament the sale of the colony. Say, it was one of the biggest mistakes in the history of the Russian state: they were asked for “only a lot” of $ 7.2 million. Subsequently, gold was found in Alaska, the famous gold rush began, and the mined minerals exceeded the purchase price many times. But the main failure of the transaction is still different: the money “gained” from the sale did not get to Russia.
7 million dollars were transferred to London by bank transfer, and already from London to St. Petersburg, the gold bars bought for this sum were taken by sea. But trouble struck - the barque Orkney, on board of which was a precious cargo, sank on July 16, 1868 on the approach to St. Petersburg. Whether gold was in it at that time, or whether it did not leave the limits of England at all, is unknown. The insurance company that insured the vessel and the cargo declared itself bankrupt, and the damage was only partially compensated.
Selling Russian California
The Russian colony in California, Fort Ross, was founded by participants of the Russian-American company in 1812. The Russian colony was headed by the governor, who received housing and salary. Frenchman Augustine I. Dukhot-Zilli wrote in 1828 that 60 Russians, 80 Kodyaks from Alaska and about 80 local Indians "lived in harmony."
The main direction of the economy of this territory was fishing seals. True, the number of cats began to rapidly decline, and it was relied on the cultivation of grain and cattle breeding - food for Alaska and arriving ships. This was not particularly successful: due to the natural conditions it was difficult to grow a good crop. The only thing that could be done brilliantly was to grow a huge orchard not far from the fort with apples, pears, peach trees and a vineyard - the garden is still alive and some trees are about 200 years old. The vineyard has become a springboard for grapes throughout California and today California is considered one of the best grapes.
Gradually, the Russian-American company came to the conclusion that it was necessary to sell the colony: the number of cats constantly decreased, the agriculture was not as productive as in Russia, the Mexicans constantly pressed Russians and demanded recognition of their republic, with which Nicholas I, an ardent supporter of absolute monarchy, could not agree. In 1839, the king approved the company's plan to liquidate the colony. But no one wanted to buy a colony - they hoped that the Russians themselves would leave. Only in 1841, Fort Ross was sold to a Mexican citizen of Swiss origin, John Satter, for 43 thousand rubles in silver. On account of payment, Satter delivered wheat to Alaska, but underpaid almost 38 thousand rubles. Thus, the Russian California was sold for only 5 thousand rubles.
December 31, 1841 the Russian colony ceased to exist, and the contract of sale remained secret (by order of the king) until 1857.