From the cave to the monastery
Monk Anthony, the future founder of the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra, came to Kiev in 1051. He settled in a cave, which shortly before that left Metropolitan Hilarion. Anthony gained the fame of a humble and pious hermit. He had followers who made up a small fraternity. When the caves became too small for them, they built the first church on the territory of the future monastery - the Assumption of the Most Holy Mother of God and several cells. At the end of the XI century, the first stone church was laid.
From that moment on, monks, holy saints and princes began to bury on the territory of the caves. For example, the famous chronicler Nestor is buried here. Before his death, he bequeathed his labors to the Pechersk monks, who continued his work. In the caves you can find worldly burial. On the territory of the Kiev-Pechersk Monastery lies Pyotr Arkadyevich Stolypin. In the will of the former prime minister, it was stated: "I want to be buried where they kill me."
Raids and destruction
Throughout its history, Kiev-Pechersk Lavra suffered from raids. The monks did not have time to recover from one blow, as the next enemies struck a new one. At the end of the XI century, the Polovtsy attacked the monastery, who plundered the shrines and destroyed the neighborhood. In the middle of the XII century the monastery was plundered by the Turks. At the beginning of the XIII century Rurik Rostislavovich made a raid on Kiev, the monastery also suffered. But the most destructive was 1240, when the troops of Batu Khan took Kiev. Most of the monks were killed, parts managed to escape. One of the last major raids on the monastery was the attack of the Crimean Khan Mengli I Gerei at the end of the XV century.
Kiev-Pechersk Lavra, the end of the XIX century
Generous donations from princes and boyars helped the monastery to deal with the consequences of destruction. They gave the monastery gold and silver. In addition, the monastery owned several cities and villages from which he could collect tribute with fish, honey, fur, or money. In the XV century, the Kiev-Pechersk Monastery received the right to send delegations to Moscow to collect donations. At the same time, the monastery was engaged in charity work: shelters for the poor and the sick were arranged, bread was sent to places of detention.
For a long time, the Kiev-Pechersk Monastery was one of the strongholds of Orthodoxy in the struggle against Uniatism. In 1596 the Brest Church Union was concluded. Some bishops of the Kyivan metropolis decided to adopt the Catholic faith and pass into submission to the Pope. Divine services should have been conducted in Church Slavonic language. As a result, there was a split in the Kiev metropolis into uniates and opponents of the agreement. Only in 1620 did the orthodox Kiev metropolitans regain the title of metropolitans of Kiev and all Russia. The Uniates failed to seize the Kiev-Pechersk Monastery. An important role in the fight against uniatism was played by the opening of a printing house on the territory of the monastery. At the beginning of the XVIII century, one of the fires destroyed the vast library of the monastery.
The relics in the distant caves of Kiev-Pechesrkoy Lavra
The honorary status of the monastery of Kiev-Pechersk monastery received in 1786. In Russia today, there are only two Lavra: Alexander Nevsky and Trinity-Sergiev. On the territory of Ukraine there are three laurels: in addition to the Kiev-Pechersk Pochayevo-Assumption and Assumption Svyatogorsk Monastery.
The main temple of Kiev-Pechersk Lavra - Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary. In his image and likeness, later built other monastic temples in the Ancient Russia. An interesting legend is connected with the construction of the Assumption Cathedral. It is believed that the Greek masters worked on the construction and decoration of the temple. Once, the Virgin Mary appeared to them in a dream and ordered to send a Cathedral to Russia.
The ruins of the Assumption Cathedral immediately after the explosion
In 1941, the Assumption Cathedral was blown up by the German occupiers. Under the leadership of Erich Koch, all possible valuables were taken out of the building, including cast silver altar throne, silver gates, and silver tombs. It was then that the famous icon of Our Lady of Pechersk disappeared, from which the laurel got its name.
For a long time after the liberation of Kiev, the cathedral stood in ruins as a reminder of the crimes of the Nazis. By the celebration of the Millennium of the baptism of Russia, it was not possible to restore it. But by the 950th anniversary of the monastery they still had time, and in 2000 the Assumption Cathedral was consecrated.