Resolution of the National Commissariat for Financial Affairs
On the procedure for the nationalization of private banks (instruction)
1. This instruction is issued to develop a decree of the Council of People's Commissars on the nationalization of banks of December 14, 1917 (Sobr. Uzak. 1917, No. 10, Art. 150) on the basis of clause 4 of this decree.
2. Under specified in Art. 1 nationalization should be understood not only the transition of credit institutions from the hands of private entrepreneurs into the hands of the state by merging them with the State (People’s) Bank, but also reorganizing the activities of these institutions on a new basis, in relation to the tasks imposed by the conditions of the modern social system on the People’s Bank of the Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic.
3. All private commercial banks with their branches, agencies and commissions are subject to nationalization.
The nationalization of private banks is carried out in the field under the closest supervision of special liquidation and technical boards. The composition of these colleges, appointed by the head of the financial department of the local council in agreement with the manager of the local institution of the former. State Bank, includes one representative from the branches of each of the former private banks, the commissars over the former private banks and two representatives from the former. state bank (representatives of the state bank must include the manager of the underlying institution), and in those cities where the institutions formerly there is no state bank; representatives from the bank’s nearest institution and one representative of the state control must be seconded to participate in the liquidation and technical colleges. The collegiums are chaired by the former head of the institution. state bank.
The board may be invited, by agreement of the manager with the head of the financial department, and other competent persons with an advisory vote. Papers and correspondence on behalf of the college are signed by three persons: one of the former members. private banks, managing formerly. State Bank and Commissioner over the former. private bank.
The liquidation and technical colleges are guided in their actions by this instruction, and on all matters relating to the nationalization of former private banks, they are demolished with the central office of the people's bank in Moscow in the department of local institutions.
4. Institutions formerly. the state bank will henceforth be referred to as the main branches of the national bank (or offices of the national bank), and the branches converted from the former. private banks should be referred to as branches of the national bank (or simply branches, if the institutions of the former state bank will be called offices).
5. In those cities where, except for institutions ex. a state bank, there is only one institution of a private bank, this latter is subject to liquidation; in cities with two or several branches of private banks, all these branches merge into one or several branches, depending on local needs. In any case, if local economic conditions necessitate the opening of more than one branch office of a national bank, then the main branch (office) should enter this with a motivated representation at the central office of the national bank.
6. December 14, 1917 should be considered as the main date to which the liquidation of the former should be timed. private banks. Therefore, regardless of the day of actual nationalization, all institutions of the national bank, converted from the former. private banks and now operating, as well as those that are subject to conversion, should consider their work from that date proceeding at the expense of the state, ie, at the expense of the people's bank. Yet operations organically associated with the actions of the former. private banks until December 14, 1917, should not be included in the accounts of the people's bank until the liquidation balance sheet is compiled on December 14, 1917 (clause 7); after this point these operations also take place according to the balance of the national bank.
7. All institutions ex. private banks, both completely liquidated and merged among themselves, must draw up a liquidation balance sheet on December 14, 1917.
The compilation of these balances, if it has not yet been carried out, must be completed no later than one month from the date of receipt of this circular. A model for the balance can be the form by which the balance sheets of private banks were published in official publications, but with all the information that would allow merging these balance sheets with the general balance of the people's bank and all foreign accounts to be merged with the foreign accounts of the national bank .
When the balance sheet is compiled for December 14, 1917, interest is accrued on the accounts of December 14, 1917 for the period of December 31 of the same year. This period is set so that when interest is calculated on January 1, there is no prediction of compound interest.
8. The liquidation report is compiled from January 1 to December 13, 1917 inclusive, without taking profits and losses, and is supplied with opening and closing balance sheets, corresponding to all general ledger accounts, and detailed extracts that could give a complete picture of each operation and through which it would be technically possible to merge these balances with the overall balance of the national bank.
Note. With regard to the overall assessment of the balance of institutions ex. private banks on December 14, 1917, such will be produced subsequently on the basis of instructions that will be given in due time.
9. On the production of balances for December 14, 1917 with all applications, the liquidation and technical collegiums send these balances to the technical colleges established under the boards of the former. private banks, according to affiliation (for example, liquidation balances of branches of the former Volga-Kama commercial bank are sent to the technical board of this bank in Petrograd, and bank branches whose boards were located in Moscow - to the liquidation department of the Moscow office of the national bank). In addition, liquidation balances are submitted to the department of local institutions under the central management of the people's bank, and finally, these balances are transferred to the institutions of the former. state bank on the ground by affiliation. In all cases, the balance will be sent detailed applications, according to the previous instructions.
10. If institutions ex. private banks are liquidated (paragraph 7), the liquidation balance sheets are automatically merged into the balance sheets of the relevant institutions of the national bank. If the former. branches of private banks merge with one or several local branches of private banks, and the liquidation balance sheets, summing up, represent the initial balance sheet of a newly established institution of the people's bank. Then, all the turnovers, made after December 14th already at the expense of the national bank, are introduced into this initial balance, and thus the balance of the branch of the national bank is obtained at any given moment.
These last balances are reported in a general manner to the center to compile a total consolidated balance sheet for the entire national bank.
Beginning in 1919, all institutions of the national bank must submit their balance sheets in the form of the balance of the former. state bank with changes that will be established in a timely manner. And, in general, all operations of the newly organized branches of the national bank from the former. private banks, both active and passive, are maintained in the future on the exact basis of the statute, orders, rules and circular instructions of the national (formerly state) bank, since these latter do not diverge from the basic principles of the new order.
11. The account of the branches of the former. private banks with their boards remains on the balance sheet and appears on it until the actual liquidation of the old operations.
12. For turnovers on operational relations of the institutions of the national bank with branches formed from the former. private banks, and for the relationship of the latter between them opens a special temporary account under the name: “Liquidation and settlement account with the bank”. All debt claims of the former are also related to this. State Bank to the former. private banks (circular dated June 5, 1918 No. 861), the free sums of the latter on their current accounts in the former. state bank and other amounts listed for the former. private banks or owed to them on any other accounts. Collateral for the said debt claims shall be returned to the branches of the former. private banks in the case when they form independent branches of the national bank.
13. In those branches of the national bank, which are formed by the merger of branches of private banks, the old operational books remain until the end of 1918. The supply of the branches of the circulating cash and exchange capital converted from private banks (Form No. 2 and 6 for accounting and reporting) is assigned to the main branches (offices).
14. Until the end of 1918, branches of private banks transformed into branches of the people's bank use old warrants and forms. Forms must be stamped again, the corresponding stamps and seals.
15. Daily turnover balance sheet is maintained in relation to the form of a national (state) bank.
16. According to the foregoing, the actual liquidation of the former operations. private banks will be made by the institutions of the people's bank, and this liquidation, in the strict sense of the word, should concern only accounts that have lost their right to exist under the new system. Operations same ex. private banks that have retained their life bases can be continued by the national bank, and the corresponding accounts of the former. private banks can get their development also in the books of the national bank
17. For the repurchase of goods and commodity documents providing loans on demand, customers are given a certain period from the date of the merger of banks. This should be done in local newspapers.
18. If a demand loan is not repaid after a two-week period from the date of the demand to repay the debt, the pledged goods are to be sold, and, in the event of a lack of collateral to cover the debt, a report is drawn up with the participation of responsible employees of former private banks. The same procedure of drawing up protocols is applied also for loans urgent under the goods and commodity documents.
19. With regard to loans and special current accounts secured by interest-bearing securities, 1) repayment of debts against canceled interest-related papers in relation to government institutions, including Councils of Deputies of former city and local governments and nationalized enterprises, is made by deducting the corresponding amounts from the estimated appropriations ; 2) the repayment of debts in respect of general institutions that are recognized as such in accordance with the established lawful procedure is either made either by estimated allocations or by covering those of the amounts due to these institutions for the papers purchased from them, if satisfaction with cancellation of the securities is assigned in this form with assignment the remaining amount to cover the debt on the loan amount to their current accounts in the national bank; 3) debts of low-income borrowers, secured by securities of not more than 10,000 rubles, are not recoverable and are covered only by repayment of canceled loans with a difference in their current account in a national bank or a savings bank account.
As for loans and special current accounts, secured by interest-bearing securities in the amount of more than 10,000 rubles, they are subject to liquidation, regardless of whether they are secured by canceled or non-canceled interest-bearing securities, and this liquidation is made by writing off current accounts or cash deposits of borrowers. , if any; otherwise, measures should be taken to cover the debts in cash, up to a compulsory method of collection. First of all, the largest accounts are subject to liquidation.
20. The short-term liabilities of the state treasury of expired terms that are in the provision of special current accounts should be written off to the account of 5% of liabilities, with repayment of debts on these accounts and crediting for difference or current accounts, if clients have any, or, in the absence of current accounts, transitional amounts for subsequent issuance to customers.
21. The rights of mortgagors with respect to collateral for all types of loans are reserved to the extent defined by the statutes of private banks. In the event of a loan being sold, the pledger has the right to receive by depositing into his bank account both the bank's over-proceeds in excess of the debt and the exemption pledged, if the right to such is not revoked by applicable laws. Note. Securities are not subject to issue.
The procedure for submitting balance sheet items, values and all affairs to institutions b. private banks to the national bank
22. The obligation of the liquidation and technical colleges is to draw up acts of acceptance of all items of the balance sheet, both in terms of assets and liabilities, as well as all property belonging to the former. private banks.
23. The basis for the actual delivery of the values and balance sheet items should be considered a liquidation balance sheet on December 14, 1917, with all its changes from the above date to the date of delivery.
24. A copy of the relevant protocol of transfer of balance sheet items and values is sent to the department of the local institutions of the national bank.
25. The liquidation commission, directly or through the allocation of a special subcommission, performs a detailed audit of the operations from December 14, 1917 to the day of the final design of the branches of the national bank, in accordance with these instructions.
26. Current correspondence, such as: an advice on unpaid transfers or letters of credit, orders for unexecuted collections, advertisements with specimen signatures on current accounts, powers of attorney of clients, statements about fireproof premises, obligations for loans, etc., are numbered page by page and inventories for each operation.
27. The general archive (correspondence) for a period of up to 10 years is arranged in separate bundles or folders and is delivered on a special inventory with the indication of the sheets of each bundle.
28. Orders for 1918 shall be submitted according to an inventory list, in which the day and number of orders are indicated day by day. During the period from 1908 to 1917, the archive of orders is rented monthly in sealed packages of a private bank.
29. Auxiliary books of 1917 and 1918. Surrender on the inventory; subsidiary books of previous years from 1908 to 1916 are rendered in packs of weather.
30. Numbered material: checks, transfer tickets, supplementary tickets, and so on. Surrender with a special inventory with the number and number of sheets. Numbered material is sealed with a private bank seal.
31. The ciphers (secret keys for payment orders) are handed over when they are listed in a box sealed with a stamp of a private bank.
32. Office environment shall be on inventory.
33. Documents submitted for collection by an attorney shall be surrendered simultaneously with the affairs of the branches; in the absence of documents from the attorneys, the latter are obliged to submit receipts of institutions or persons who have accepted these documents, or in extreme cases, detailed information on the whereabouts of the documents. Attorneys also submit a cash report on the amounts received to them for all cases in their proceedings.
34. Formation of personnel for institutions of a people's bank opened and transformed through a merger is entrusted to liquidation-technical collegia, with the approval of the head of the finance department, and in relevant cases the main commissar of the people's bank or the people's commissary for financial matters.
35. When forming personnel, it is advisable to use employees who are as free as possible after merging branches of private banks.
36. It is desirable to include several people from among experienced employees of a national (state) bank, who in turn can be replaced by employees of private banks.
37. In all cases where the actual merger in the field has already occurred before the issuance of this instruction and, moreover, in a manner different from that proposed by the instruction, managers and commissioners are obliged to bring this to the attention of the main commissioner, describing the course of the merger, considerations for the preservation of mergers in the form that was established on the site. It is not necessary to redo the work done before receiving a response from the chief commissioner.
Signed: People's Commissar for Financial Affairs Krestinsky.
For the Chief Commissioner, the Governor of the People's Bank Furstenberg.
December 10, 1918.
Источник: Собрание узаконений и распоряжений правительства за 1917-1918 гг. Управление делами Совнаркома СССР М. 1942, стр. 1401−1406.
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