Jacob Friedrich van't Hoff - Chemistry
Jacob Vant-Hoff received the Nobel Prize "in recognition of the tremendous importance of discovering the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions." In addition, Vant-Hoff is one of the main theorists of structural chemistry, which studies the structure of molecules and how it affects the chemical properties of a substance.
Emil Adolf von Bering - Physiology and Medicine
A German doctor used serum therapy to treat diphtheria. Together with his colleague Paul Ehrlich, he developed a medicine with the correct dosage of antitoxins. This saved the lives of more than 200 children. That is why in 1901, Emil Bering was awarded the prize with the wording: “for his work on serum therapy, mainly for its use in the treatment of diphtheria, which opened up new paths in medical science and gave the doctors a victorious weapon against illness and death”. Prior to this, medicine was powerless against this disease.
Sully Prudhomme - Literature
The victory of the French poet caused a real scandal. Many hoped that Lev Tolstoy would get the first prize in literature. However, members of the Swedish Academy considered otherwise. “In recognition of the special recognition of his poetic creativity, which testifies to the exalted idealism, artistic excellence and a rare combination of spiritual and intellectual virtues,” they explained. And this, in turn, answered the "covenants" of Nobel. After all, the prize in literature should be awarded to a writer who “created the most significant literary work of an idealistic orientation,” noted Alfred Nobel in his will.
Henri Dunant and Frederick Passy - Peace Prize
The Swiss writer and journalist Henri Dunant went down in history as the ideological inspirer and creator of the organization of the International Committee of the Red Cross. At one time, Dunant witnessed the battle of Solferino. Then thousands of wounded and exhausted soldiers were left to die on the battlefield, receiving no help. This picture shocked Henri to the depths of the soul. He wrote a book about it “Memories of the Battle of Solferino” and proposed the creation of a relief society for the wounded. Many countries responded to his proposal, and the Red Cross appeared in Geneva in 1863.
The French peacemaker Frederic Passy shared the award with the Swiss. His merit is the creation of the Inter-Parliamentary Union. This organization, founded in 1889, became the first UN where parliamentarians from different countries discussed political issues. She played a big role in reconciling the warring parties. Union exists to this day.
Wilhelm Konrad X-ray - physics
Surprisingly, the German scientist refused to go to the ceremony. X-rays discovered the so-called "X-rays" that can penetrate materials. This discovery radically influenced the development of all science. Experiments with X-rays gave the world new information about the structure of substances. Moreover, the rays allowed Marie Curie, the twice-future Nobel Prize winner, to discover radioactivity.
The first x-ray taken from the hand of the scientist's wife. You can see the ring on the finger