Today we at Diletant.media decided to make a small selection concerning the presentation of claims of various countries for compensation for historical damage.
Cuba vs USA
US sanctions against Cuba were imposed in 1960, when Cuba expropriated the property of American citizens and corporations; in 1962, the sanctions were tightened to a level of almost complete embargo. As a condition for the lifting of US sanctions, they demand democratization and respect for human rights in Cuba, as well as an end to Cuba’s military cooperation with other countries.
In turn, Cuban President Raul Castro said that in order to fully restore diplomatic relations with the United States, Washington must return the land on which the Guantanamo military base is located. Castro also noted that the United States should lift the trade embargo that they imposed on Cuba about 50 years ago and compensate the country for the damage caused by the sanctions. The amount of compensation will be announced later and will amount to several hundred million dollars. In addition, Raul Castro called on the United States to exclude Cuba from the list of countries sponsoring terrorism, and to stop sponsoring the local opposition.
The economic blockade imposed by the US government caused enormous damage to the economic development of Cuba in the post-1960 period. In 2005, Cuban Foreign Minister Felipe Perez Roque said that in 44 years of blockade, the Cuban economy was damaged in the amount of 82 billion US dollars.
According to official data of the Cuban government, as of the beginning of December 2010, direct damage from the economic blockade amounted to 104 billion US dollars (and taking into account the depreciation of the dollar against gold in the period after 1961 - 975 billion US dollars).
Greece vs Germany
The Ministry of Finance of Greece has calculated that, as war reparations, Germany must pay Athens 278.7 billion euros. Greek Deputy Finance Minister Dimitris Mardas said that all the evidence and materials of the Nazis' guilt were collected. Documents transferred to the political leadership of the country.
The decision of the Supreme Court of Greece concerns the Nazi brutal murder of the inhabitants of the Greek village of Disto in 1944
The Ministry of Finance of the country came to the conclusion that the total amount of payments will be 278.7 billion euros. Of these, 10.3 billion euros the Germans must repay for a compulsory loan taken by Germany from the Bank of Greece during the war. The rest of the compensation will go to the victims. Curiously, at the Paris Conference in 1946, the amount was set at 341.2 billion dollars at the prices of that time. However, the issue of payments has been hanging for decades.
Relatives of the victims in the village of Distomo demanding payment of compensation
The question of receiving billions of dollars of war reparations for the crimes of the Nazis during the Second World War from Berlin has been actively discussed in Greece in recent years, but there hasn’t been any progress on this topic yet. Former head of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Greece, Evangelos Venizelos, discussed this topic with the ex-head of the German Foreign Ministry, Guido Westerwelle, as well as with the current head of this department, Frank-Walter Steinmeier, during their visits to Athens.
In March 2014, the President of Greece, Karolos Papoulias, told the President of the Federal Republic of Germany, Joachim Gauk, that Athens would not give up the demand for Germany to pay war reparations and return the so-called occupation loan. Greek Prime Minister Alexis Tsipras February 8, 2015 said that the Greek government will finally officially demand that Germany repay for the crimes of the Nazis during the Second World War. In March, it became known that the Greek government was preparing to activate the Supreme Court’s decision adopted 15 years ago and arrest German business assets in the country as compensation for the atrocities of the Nazis.
Berlin, for its part, stated that the treaty "Two plus four" which was signed in 1990 by the foreign ministers of Germany and the GDR, as well as the foreign ministers of the allied countries in World War II - the USSR, the USA, Great Britain and France - put an official end World War II and solved the problem of reparations.
Venezuela vs USA
Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro said that he would personally call on US President Barack Obama to apologize to the victims of the American invasion of Panama in 1989 and pay them compensation.
«The US must apologize and must pay compensation to the victims of the so-called military invasion, which in fact was the extermination", - Maduro said after laying wreaths at the Monument to the fallen during the US military intervention in December 1989 in the village of El Chorrillo. This village was almost completely destroyed by American aircraft, at least 20 thousand people lost their homes. He promised to give the US leader a letter in which a committee of the relatives of the victims makes demands to the US authorities.
«I promise to give a letter to President Obama. The United States must apologize to Panama and Latin America for the 1989 invasion. I will personally make an effort to ensure that justice prevails, that the people of Panama are asked for forgiveness, and that we achieve full compensation for the families of the victims».
US invasion of Panama (code name - the operation "just cause") began on December 20, 1989, the fighting was completed on the morning of December 25. The United States officially motivated the invasion with the protection of the lives of 35,000 American citizens and the “restoration of democracy” in Panama.
Lithuania vs Russia
Lithuania is demanding compensation for the Soviet occupation. Speaking at an extended meeting of the Lithuanian Foreign Ministry board, President Valdas Adamkus again raised the topic of Russia’s compensation for damage caused during the Soviet occupation in 1939-1941 and 1945-1991 and named the amount of $ 28 billion.
The Lithuanian leadership raised the issue of compensation for damage from the Soviet occupation in the early 1990s. In June 1992, at a referendum, 70% of citizens supported this demand. Four years later, the government approved the decree “On the Work Program for Establishing Damage Caused to Lithuania by the USSR (1940–1991) and the Army of the Russian Federation (1991–1993)”, and a special commission, calculating the damage, declared that Russia owes Lithuania $ 276 billion. The conservative majority in the Diet, led by one of the fathers of Lithuanian independence, Vytautas Landsbergis, did not take real action at the time, being limited to many declarations. In the summer of 2000, the Sejm adopted the law “On Compensation for Damage Caused by the Occupation of the USSR”, obliging the country's authorities to constantly seek redress for the damage by the Russian Federation. However, according to estimates of another interdepartmental commission, it fell to $ 20 billion.
Over all these years, Russia's position has not changed: Russia will not pay anything. It is believed that during the occupation of material resources are exported, but in the Baltic States this was not; In addition, Lithuania received a territorial bonus from the USSR - a part of East Prussia equal to 30% of the territory of the republic.
The list of Russian arguments is considerable: the airfield in Zokniai ($ 5 billion), the ferry terminal in Klaipeda ($ 2 billion), Mazeikiai Oil Refinery (12 million tons of oil per year), Kedainiai Chemical Plant, Yonava Mineral Fertilizers Plant, Ignalina NPP (2.5 thousand MW) , Baltija shipyard, pulp-and-cardboard plant in Klaipeda, Azotas software, Zalgiris machine-tool plant, Kaunas HPP, etc. According to statistics, the volume of industrial production in Lithuania increased by about 85 times, agriculture - 2.5 times. It should also be noted that the development of the Lithuanian economy was actually subsidized by the supply of cheap resources mainly from the RSFSR in the form of oil and oil products.
North Korea v. Japan
North Korea demands from Japan "apologies for monstrous war crimes»During the Japanese occupation of the Korean Peninsula in 1910-1945 and the payment of appropriate compensation to the victims.
According to the DPRK government newspaper “Mingzhu Choson,” such a demand “pushes the entire international community outraged by Japan’s reluctance to reconsider».
Instead, the newspaper notes, representatives of the Japanese authorities openly make pilgrimages to the Yasukuni temple in Tokyo, which in foreign countries is considered a symbol of the revival of militarism in this country. They worship the souls of warriors who died for Japan and the emperor, among whom are those convicted after the Second World War for war crimes.
«To draw a line under the past is a moral debt of Japan, which it must fulfill immediately. During the Japanese occupation of the Korean Peninsula in 1910-1945, more than 8 million Koreans were forcibly forced into hard labor in coal mines and various military facilities. About a million of them died. Many were killed under the pretext of "preserving secrecy"- writes the North Korean newspaper.
South Korea vs Japan
Japanese war crimes committed in 1933-1945 still remain one of the most difficult topics in relations between South Korea and Japan.
"Women for consolation" called those Korean women whom the Japanese were forced to engage in prostitution during the occupation of the Korean island of Takeshima. Takeshima until 1954 was under the control of Tokyo, but later it was taken by the South Korean army on the grounds that Japan after the war refused to participate in the management of its colonies. Between this dispute over territorial affiliation is still ongoing between countries.
At the moment, according to Tokyo, there are 53 former “women for comfort” living in South Korea who are paid compensation to the Japanese government. According to the research of historians, during the war, the Japanese army created about 400 "stations for consolation" in China and Southeast Asia. Data on the number of women subjected to such humiliation vary. In Japan, they claim that there were 20,000 of them, and in China, 410,000 affected women.
«In the postwar years, the Japanese government provided these women with various measures of support. Compensation was paid, treatment was paid. Sixty-one women received compensation totaling five million yen each (about 41 thousand dollars at the current rate), "- a quote from a representative of the Japanese Ministry of Foreign Affairs.
At the same time in South Korea, such conditions do not like and they require more. "However, representatives of Korean public organizations and other activists, our efforts seem to be insufficient. This topic was also repeatedly raised in his speeches and the President of South Korea“- said the representative of Tokyo. According to him, Japan can provide decent payments, however, South Korea itself prevents it.
In the opinion of the Japanese side, non-governmental organizations that defend their rights are putting pressure on women for comfort. "We wanted to pay compensation to all these women, but we faced opposition from a non-governmental organization. The organization and other activists criticized women for agreeing to accept "this dirty Japanese money"“- said the representative of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Japan. The conflict has not been resolved to this day.