Berlin today is the second most populous city and the fifth largest city in the European Union. How did this city develop? Diletant.media remembered vivid facts from the history of Berlin.
Around 1200, two commercial settlements settled on the site of modern Berlin, which after about 100 years united. In 1415, the Elector Frederick I founded the Margrave of Brandenburg and ruled there until 1440. From that time on, members of the Hohenzollern dynasty ruled in Berlin until 1918, first as margraves of the state of Brandenburg, then as kings of Prussia, and finally as German emperors (Kaisers).
At the end of the First World War in 1919, the so-called Weimar Republic was proclaimed in Berlin. Officially, the state continued to be called the “German Reich”, as in the times of the German Empire. In 1920, the law of the founding of Greater Berlin followed, uniting many towns, land and districts around Berlin. After that, the population of Berlin exceeded 4 million people. Berlin has become the largest industrial, scientific and cultural center of Germany and the continent.
In 1936, the Summer Olympic Games were held in Berlin, which were used by the Nazis for propaganda purposes. Under the leadership of Albert Speer, a master plan was developed for building Berlin as the future “capital of the world - Germania”.
During the war and after it ended, most of Berlin was destroyed as a result of the numerous bombings and street battles of 1945. After the capture of the city by the Red Army and the complete and unconditional surrender of Germany, Berlin, like the whole country, was divided into four sectors under foreign control.
Movement between parts of Berlin remained relatively free for a long time, and in order to prevent the GDRs from leaking to the western sectors, the government of the GDR decided to erect the Berlin Wall that surrounded West Berlin from August 13, 1961.
The Berlin Wall, which became one of the main symbols of the Cold War, lasted until 1989. After the unification of Germany in 1990, reunited Berlin became its capital. In 1994, the presidential administration moved there from Bonn and in 1999 the Bundestag and the federal chancellor’s office together with federal ministries.