Joseph Pulitzer (1847−1911)
Initially, Pulitzer dreamed of a military career, but he was not taken to the Austrian army, and therefore he moved to the United States. Soon he abandoned the army and, having studied English, acquired “St. Louis Post-Dispatch. In the purchased edition, he began experimenting with might and main with screaming and catchy headlines, revelations and lengthy newspaper campaigns. And "The New York World", the main newspaper of Pulitzer, reached a circulation of 1 million copies and made him all his fortune. This newspaper was an explosive mixture of investigative journalism, political cartoons and sensations. This is how a new newspaper style appeared in journalism - “new journalism”, and the prestigious Pulitzer Prize, which is presented to journalists, was named after the magnate.
William Hearst (1863−1951)
William Hearst is often called the father of the yellow press. He led a fierce newspaper war with Joseph Pulitzer. All means were used: from recruiting journalists to the editorial board of a competitor to scandals inflated by his newspapers and magazines on an incredible scale. Hurst bought not only print publications, but also television channels, radio stations, and news agencies. So, in the forties, he owned more than 40 newspapers, dozens of magazines and stations. The war between Spain and the United States, deliberately provoked by Hearst in 1898, became a good example of the power of his media empire. “A big enough headline makes any news big,” he said.
Rupert Murdoch (born 1931)
Murdoch began his media business in Australia, in 1968 began to conquer the UK, and in the eighties entered the American television market. He founded his own holding company, News Corporation, which included such influential newspapers as The Sun, The Times, The Wall Street Journal, as well as the 20th Century Fox film company and Fox News. The profit of this union was in the tens of billions of dollars. Murdoch's media played a big role in US and British politics. So, he openly supported the British prime ministers Tony Blair, Margaret Thatcher, and John Major. And in 2002, Rupert agitated for the war in Iraq - this idea was of course picked up by the media of Murdov around the world. At the same time, Murdoch was one of the first to pay attention to satellite TV and the Internet, which brought him, one can guess, a lot of money.
Alfred Harmsworth (1865−1922)
He went down in history as the creator of The Daily Mail, the first mass business newspaper in Britain. To increase circulation and increase the number of subscribers, Alfred Harmsworth started a lot of interesting contests. So, Louis Bleriot flew over the English Channel in 1909 and received a prize of 1,000 pounds for it. By the way, Alfred, along with his brother Harold, who was also a media magnate, published illustrated weeklies, thanks to which they presented the world with many unique photographs and talented photojournalists. Alfred also once decided to publish the first fully female newspaper, The Daily Mirror, where all the materials would be written only by girls, but a quick failure awaited her. Periods of the Harmsworth brothers were estimated in millions of copies.
Nikolay Pastukhov (1831−1911)
Nikolai Pastukhov finished neither school nor university: he was engaged in self-education all his life. However, this did not prevent him from writing notes for Russian publications. Finally, in 1881, Pastukhov founded the daily newspaper Moskovsky Leaf, which was very popular among the poor. They published and Vladimir Gilyarovsky, and Anton Chekhov, and Plescheev. The publisher skillfully organized the reporter service and the collection of operational information. Shepherds instantly found out about any incident in the city. Actually, “Moscow leaflet” made the entrepreneur not only rich, but also the founders of the reporting genre in Russian journalism.