“We were considered to be middle peasants: a cow, a horse, and chickens. They did not want to go to the kolkhoz, but they came out of the board and said: “Do not join, go around the world, send as kulaks!” A week later we entered the farm. There were many families like us. On the kolkhoz, the entire poor was non-working, they did not do anything: they did not plow, did not mow, all were trakhtur. But he was not there. And so they drank, all the days drunken went. And when we put on our plowed up, and others too, then we were driven into a collective farm, ”recalls a resident of the village of Kim in the Rostov region. Alexandra Nikonova.
A resident of the village of Bolshoe Chernoskutovo shares his memories. Ivan Babkin: “It was useless to object: those who did not want to join the collective farm were immediately declared saboteurs, deprived of arable land and an agricultural land. Even threatened to be declared fist or podkulachnik. And there was also a focus - the deprivation of the right to vote, the threat of confiscation of unsophisticated property and expulsion God knows where to hang, despite the elderly and children. It is impossible to forget how the cries of despair came from the houses, as if by the dead relatives. ”
“The most industrious men were rakulakuli. The poor, there were such peasants - who is alone, who is sick. But there were poor people and quitters, now we call them parasites. The average was considered: you have one or two horses, a cow with adolescents “one and a half”, i.e. a calf. Three sheep, four, two pigs. Everyone had four or five or more children, they worked a lot, but the children died, ”says a peasant, a resident of the village of Krivoshei. Leonid Stremousov.
A resident of the village of Glinnoy shares her impressions of that era. Efrosinya Prosviryakova: “Everyone loved the earth. How not to love the earth? Earth is the wet-nurse. People hardworking, honest, fair and kind were a model for neighbors. I remember that the Chaykin family lived next to us. The owner was imprisoned for the fact that, working as a collective farm chairman, he gave out to the collective farmers a spring of flour from the collective farm warehouse. We did not have enough of our own grain before Christmas. Everyone pitied him; he died in prison. ”
“Songs about Stalin sang:“ About the Stalin wise, native and beloved beautiful songs are laid down by the people ”or“ Stalin’s rich harvest all our land is filled up with ”. Somewhere piled bread in the wrong place, and the people died of hunger in the thirties and forties, "- says a peasant Evdokia Merzlyakova.
So speaks about the collectivization of the peasant Alexandra Pyregov: “The collective farm entered in 1932. At first they worked for bread, and during the war and after the war, all for nothing! Grass ate and all worked! It got to the point that they did not pay for work on the collective farm at all. Only workdays were recorded, but there was nothing to give out for them - everything went on a schedule. ”
“When everyone was just signing up to the kolkhoz, it was a pity to give our cattle there. All the peasants wanted their cows back, because they saw where their cattle were kept, how they were treated, what they were fed. More was terrible among the cattle, "says a contemporary of those events. Mikhail Belyakov from the Tambov province.
Peasant from the village of Ustin Daria Zubareva complained about the huge taxes that she had to pay: “The main thing - they choked taxes. Look, what taxes they paid: insurance - well, they paid this money, then a military tax, a tax for childlessness again, a tax on milk, meat, wool, eggs, then another loan. It used to be that all the nights were sitting: subscribe, and that was all! How can I sign up if I have nothing to pay? ”
“Vasilisa's brother made the mill himself. They had a big family, many sons. So he decided to make their own hands, so that it was easier to live. So he was dispossessed and hijacked to Siberia, ”says the agronomist, assessing the consequences of collectivization. Anna Muratovsky.
“Especially us teenagers were pleased with collectivization. We were happy, but the majority of the population was against it. Only a small part of the population, who lived very poorly, didn’t have the power of a collectivization, ”the mechanic wrote Ivan Zorin.
- Berdinsky V.A. Peasant civilization in Russia
- Berdinsky V.A. Speech dumb. The daily life of the Russian peasantry in the XX century.
- Photo source lead: cont.ws / Photo source on the main: RIA Novosti