For the first time Getman Khmelnitsky turned to Moscow for help in 1648. The accession of Little Russia would mean a war with the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth for Moscow, so the king was not in a hurry with the decision. In August 1653, Bogdan Khmelnitsky sent an ambassador to Alexei Mikhailovich to convey the following message: “Only you, the great Sovereign Orthodox, beat our heads so that your royal greatness does not leave us. The King of Poland, with all the power of Lyatka, comes at us, they want to kill the Orthodox faith, the churches are saints, the Orthodox Christian people of this small Russia. " It should be noted that with the same request hetman Khmelnitsky previously appealed to Turkey and Sweden. Cossacks and Poles fought a bloody war, despite the Belotserkovsky Treaty concluded earlier, the situation became critical. In October 1653, the Zemsky Sobor granted the application Khmelnitsky.
Bogdan Khmelnitsky's entrance to Kiev
Part of the clergy, as well as representatives of the Cossack elite, who sought to create an independent state, opposed joining Russia. On January 18, 1654, a meeting of Zaporizhzhya Cossacks was held in Pereyaslav, at which the issue of unification with Moscow was discussed. Boyar Vasily Vasilyevich Buturlin participated in the negotiations; he was later awarded by Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich for the success of his diplomatic mission. Buturlin received a velvet coat, a gold cup and an increase in salary.
Boyarin Buturlin takes oath from hetman Khmelnitsky on citizenship of Russia
At a meeting in Pereyaslav, Bogdan Khmelnitsky delivered a speech:
“For 6 years now we have been living without a sovereign, in incessant armor and bloodshed with our persecutors and enemies, who want to eradicate the Church of God, so that the Russian name will not be remembered in our land, which is already very boring for all of us, and we can’t live without us the king. To do this, we gathered Rada, who was obvious to all the people, so that you choose with us a sovereign out of four who you want: the first king, the Turkish, who many times through his ambassadors called us under his power; the second is the Crimean Khan; the third is the king of Poland, who, if we wish, and now he can accept us as a former affection; the fourth is the sovereign Tsar, Grand Duke Aleksei Mikhailovich, Orthodox of Great Russia, an Eastern autocrat of all Russia, whom we have been asking for continuously for 6 years. Here you want to choose!
The Turkish king is a basurman: you all know how our brothers, Orthodox Christians, the Greeks, endure misfortune and how they live from godless oppression; The Crimean Khan is also a basurman, whom we, in need of friendship, accepted, what unbearable evils we experienced! There is nothing to say about the oppression from the Polish lords: you yourself know that a Jew and a dog are better than a Christian, our brother, revered. And the Orthodox Christian is a great sovereign - of the Eastern common to us piety, Greek law, single confession, we are one Church body with Orthodoxy of Great Russia, head of having Jesus Christ. This is a great sovereign, a Christian king, having taken pity on the intolerable bitterness of the Orthodox Church in our Little Russia, having not disdained our six-year-old prayers, now bowing down his gracious royal heart to us with his royal grace, deigning ”.
The hetman demanded that the Russian ambassadors be the first to take the oath on behalf of the Russian Tsar. Buturlin refused to meet this requirement. The Cossacks became citizenship of Alexei Mikhailovich, the conditions were outlined in the March articles. In Ukraine, the Cossack administration remained, most of the local fees had to go to the royal treasury. Russia declared war on the Commonwealth, which lasted until 1667. In accordance with the peace treaty, Kiev temporarily passed on to Moscow, in addition, Russia received Smolensk, Dorogobuzh, Left-Bank Malorussia and Seversk land.