Marina Mniszek - the first crowned Russian Tsarina

Marianna was born in 1588 in the ancestral castle of her father, Sandomierz governor Jerzy Mnishek. She was expected by the ordinary life of the Polish panna with wealth and entertainment, feasts, hunting and family troubles. But in 1604, a stranger unexpectedly appeared on the estate of Mnishek, claiming that he had miraculously escaped the son of Russian Tsar John - Tsarevich Dmitry. "Tsarevich" fell in love with Marina and asked her to be his wife. The girl was not thrilled with such a not very attractive groom, but she was influenced by her father and the Catholic Church. The clerics hoped that with the help of Marina they would be able to finally bring Catholicism to the Russian kingdom. The father also set a number of conditions for False Dmitry: his daughter became a Russian tsarina, received the city of Novgorod and Pskov as a fiefdom, kept Catholicism, and in case of failure, the False Dmitry could marry another. Only in this way the governor agreed to support the impostor.

False Dmitry I and Marina Mnishek Engraving by G. F. Galaktionov beginning of the 19th century

In 1605, the young people were betrothed in absentia, then False Dmitry was represented by clerk Vlasyev. But after Lzedmitry occupied Moscow, Marina, with pomp and accompanied by a large retinue, came to her fiancé. About two thousand Poles came with her. The festivities began long before the wedding, the Lzhedmitry showered the bride with gifts - only one casket was worth 500 thousand gold rubles. “Tsarevich” presented her with a carriage decorated with silver, for her and her retinue near Moscow they broke two tents, balls and dinners were replaced by one another. And on May 8, 1606, the wedding and coronation of Marina took place. She became the only woman crowned in Russia before Catherine I. They say that for the first time Mnishek brought a fork to Russia and ate her at a wedding feast, which caused displeasure in Russia. From the day of the wedding, Marina began the joyful life of the queen, but it lasted just over a week. Already on May 17, a rebellion broke out, as a result of which her husband was killed, was mocked many times over his body and, according to legend, was burned and shot with dust in the direction of Poland. Marina miraculously escaped death, because the rebels did not recognize her.

Wedding of False Dmitry and Marina Mnishek in Moscow on May 8, 1606

Vasily Shuisky settled all the Mnisheks in Yaroslavl, where they lived until 1608. According to the truce between Poland and Russia, Marina ceased to be a Russian tsarina, and they pledged to take her home. However, on the way she was intercepted by rioters and taken to the Tushino camp. There she was introduced to False Dmitry II, who claimed that he was now twice the miraculously surviving prince Dmitry. Marina, although she was disgusted with the Tushinsky thief, was forced to recognize her husband in him and even secretly get married. She lived in the camp and so hard, and with the flight of False Dmitry II from Tushin it became even worse. She was afraid to be killed, therefore, disguised as a hussar and accompanied by Don Cossacks, Marina fled to Dmitrov and then to Kaluga to the Tushino thief. Later, they move to Kolomna together. There, under the protection of the chieftain of the Don Cossacks Zarutsky, who stayed with Mnishek and after the death of the Tushino thief in 1610, she lived until 1611 and gave birth to a son, Ivan, who was called "vorenko".

Marina Mniszek with her father in custody

Marina is trying to declare her son heir to the throne, but to no avail. After the Zemstvo militia came up to Moscow, Mnishek flees first to Ryazan, then to Astrakhan, and then up along Yaiku. But at the Bear Island she was caught up by the archers and, chained, was sent along with her son to Moscow (1614). Meanwhile, the three-year-old "vorenok" represented a real threat to Misha Romanov, who was chosen by the people, he was the son of a tsarina born in wedlock. It was decided to get rid of the boy, so that no one even had any thoughts about another miraculously saved “prince John”. A sleeping child was taken from the mother’s arms and hanged in public. They say that distraught with grief Mnisek cursed the entire Romanov family and stated that no man in their family would die a natural death.

Mnishek with his son Ivan "Vorenko"

As for the queen herself, the data on her fate differ. According to the Russian ambassadors to the Polish government, that “Ivashka was executed for his evil deeds and Marinkin’s son was executed, and Marinka died in Moscow from an illness and with longing at will.” Other sources claim that she was hanged or drowned. There is even a version that it was sharpened in the Round Tower of the Kolomna Kremlin, where Mnishek died. Thus, the life of the first crowned Russian tsarina ended ingloriously.

Watch the video: Artem Golubev The Pretender under the name in Boris Godunov opera by (January 2020).