August 16, 1888 was born a British officer and traveler, author of the memoirs of "The Seven Pillars of Wisdom" Thomas Edward Lawrence. Thomas is considered a military hero both in Great Britain and in several Arab countries in the Middle East. He is also dedicated to one of the most famous biographical films in the history of cinema: "Lawrence of Arabia."
Today we remember the main milestones of Thomas Edward and will try to display them in our photo selection.
Thomas Edward Lawrence was born on August 16, 1888 in the Welsh village of Tremadok, the illegitimate son of Sir Thomas Chapman. As a child, he lived in Oxford, and in 1907 he entered Oxford College of Jesus. He studied history and archeology.
Four elder brothers Lawrence: Ned, Bob, Frank and Will. Oxford, 1900
Lawrence explored medieval castles in France and Syria and wrote his first book, The Castles of the Crusaders. From 1911 to 1914, Lawrence participated in the excavations of Carchemish (Jerablus), a Hittite city in the headwaters of the Euphrates, led by D. Hogarth, C. Thompson and C. Woolley, and in 1912 - in the excavations in Egypt, led by Flinders Pitry. In 1911, he briefly returned to England, then again went to the Middle East. He traveled a lot in Arabia, studied Arabic.
“Fools do not understand that sooner or later everything that they are so anxious to possess will have them.”
In January 1914 he was enrolled in the British army with the rank of lieutenant, in non-combatant units, due to the frail build and small stature (Lawrence's height was only 5 feet 4 inches, which is 165 centimeters). As a connoisseur of Arabic, Lawrence was sent to Egypt at the Bureau of Arab Affairs in Cairo.
“All revisions and revisions in the world will not save an idea that was boring at birth”
In March 1916 he was sent to Mesopotamia to negotiate with Turkish generals in order to secure the honorable surrender of the British garrison besieged in Kuta. In May of the same year, Lawrence joined Prince Feisal of Mecca (the future king of iraq feisal i), who took the lead of the Arab Liberation Army, and suggested to him how, having cut the Hejaz railway in several places, supplying the Turkish garrison in Medina, immobilize the superior Turkish forces. During this campaign, Lawrence received 32 injuries. On July 6, 1917, he was able to take Aqaba, which greatly helped the British units, who launched an attack in Palestine at the same time.
Edward Lawrence in 1917
New era of Palestine. Arrival of Sir Herbert Samuel, High Commissioner, Colonel Lawrence, Emir Abdullah, Air Marshal Sir Salmond and Sir Windham Didz, 1920
After General Allenby began the battle of Gaza, Lawrence developed and consolidated the success of the Allies, destroying the railway hub in Ma'an and sending the Bedouin tribes against the defeated Turks. Lawrence joined Damascus at the head of the British forces.
"Reason sees in the grave the gate to the world of peace, but instinct denies it."
At the end of the war, Lawrence refused the knighthood offered to him (through the Order of the British Empire to the degree of Knight Commander) and other high honors, but he accepted the title of councilor of All Souls College.
"During the maneuvers in the tank units, I was once ordered to disguise myself among the squeezed battalion rows: from then on, I continue."
In 1919, he took part in the Versailles Peace Conference, where he unsuccessfully supported the Arabs ’demand for independence, while at the same time sympathizing with the desire of the Jews to create a national state. The negotiations ended in failure due to the refusal of the Arabs to recognize the British Mandate over Iraq and Palestine and the French Mandate over Syria.
"Speed is the most ancient animal hiding inside everyone"
As a result of the ensuing unrest in the Middle East, the Minister of Colonial Affairs, Winston Churchill, in 1922 gave Lawrence virtually complete freedom of action in preparing a peace agreement on the Middle East. Meanwhile, Lawrence was seized by writing a book, Seven Pillars of Wisdom (Seven Pillars of Wisdom), an eyewitness account of the Arab uprising.
"I love being alone so much that I tend to leave everyone else alone."
Bringing both to completion, Lawrence, at his own request, was enrolled as a private under the name Ross in the British Air Force. A few months later he was dismissed after one of the officers gave his true name to newspapermen.
"Speed is the most ancient animal hiding inside everyone"
In March 1923, taking the name of Shaw, Lawrence entered the Royal tank units, and in his free time he tested new models of motorcycles. In 1925 he was again allowed to enter the air force. Following the advice of his friend Bernard Shaw, he continued to work on the "Seven Pillars of Wisdom" and in 1926 published a book in the form of a beautifully designed edition, printed in the amount of 128 copies distributed by subscription. To recoup the cost of publication, in 1927, he released a shortened version called Revolt in the Desert. This book was a huge success in many countries around the world.
Colonel Lawrence, then working as a Churchill adviser
In 1927, Lawrence was transferred to Karachi (now in Pakistan), where from 1927 to 1928 he worked as commandant of the military barracks and completed the book The Mint, an emotional narrative about his training as a rookie at the Royal Air Force school in Uxbridge ( in England, the book was published only in 1955).
Leonard Woolley and Lawrence of Arabia
In the years 1930-1935, Lawrence participated in the modernization of high-speed military courts in Southampton. In 1932 his translation of Homer's Odyssey was published. His service in the Air Force expired in February 1935, and on May 19 of the same year Lawrence died in Morton from the effects of a motorcycle accident (according to the official version). It happened near his home near Wareham.
By the way, the motorcycle was non-standard, and one of the most powerful in the world, made under the special order.
In the evening, Lawrence drove to the post office and went back. Approaching the house, the motorcyclist sharply turned aside so as not to hit the boys on bicycles, flew out of the saddle and hit his head on the edge of the sidewalk. Witnesses arrived at the scene too late, when Lawrence was already dying. A week later, he passed away. He was only 46 years old.
In addition to the above:
In honor of T. E. Lawrence was awarded the award - the Lawrence of Arabia Commemorative Medal - which has been awarded since 1935 by the British Royal Society for Asia "in recognition of outstanding achievements in intelligence, research and literature."
He is dedicated to one of the most famous biographical films in the history of cinema: "Lawrence of Arabia." David Lin film about Thomas Edward Lawrence and the events of the Arab uprising of 1916-1918. The film won seven Oscars, including the best film. This 3.5-hour tape of 1962 made beginner actors Peter O'Toole and Omar Sharif world movie stars of the first magnitude.
Peter O'Toole as Lawrence of Arabia
The film is a story about the events of the life of the British intelligence officer T. E. Lawrence, who worked during the First World War in Syria in active interaction with Arab nomads and received for this reason the nickname “Arabian”. Lawrence was actively introduced to the Arabs, imbued with their spirit and in fact led the Arab guerrilla war against the Ottoman Empire (the so-called “War in the Desert”). The script is based on Lawrence’s autobiographical best-seller, The Seven Pillars of Wisdom, as well as on the historical studies of Lawrence’s biographers.
In a survey conducted by Empire magazine, the picture won first place in the list of "One hundred best British films of all time." The British Film Institute took her third place.