The invasion of Batu in Russia (1237−1240)
The Mongol-Tatars, quickly devastated the land of Ryazan, interrupting most of its inhabitants and taking numerous places, moved against the Vladimir-Suzdal principality. Meeting of the troops of Vladimir Prince Yuri Vsevolodovich (The army was led by Prince Vsevolod’s son and Vladimir Voivode Yeremey Glebovich) with the Mongols occurred on January 1, 1238 near Kolomna in the flood plain of the Moscow River. The battle lasted 3 days and ended with the defeat of the Russian troops. Vladimir voevoda Yeremey Glebovich was killed, and Prince Vsevolod with the remnants of the troops fought off his enemies and got to Vladimir, where he appeared before the strict eyes of his father, Yuri Vsevolodovich.
But only the Mongols celebrated the victory, as the Ryazan boyar Yevpaty Kolovrat hit the rear of them. His detachment consisted of no more than 2 thousand soldiers. With this handful of people, he courageously confronted two Mongol fogs. The battle was terrible. But the enemy, in the end, won, thanks to its strength. Evpaty Kolovrat himself was killed, and many of his combatants were killed. As a sign of respect for the courage of these people, Batu released the survivors in peace.
After that, the Mongols laid siege to Kolomna, and the other part of the troops surrounded Moscow. Both cities have fallen. Moscow, Batu's troops took by storm on January 20, 1238 after a siege that lasted 5 days. They burned it, then a small wooden fortress.
Tokhtamysh invasion of Moscow
The army of Tokhtamysh, crossing the Oka River, captured Serpukhov and headed for Moscow. On August 23, the advanced forces of Tokhtamysh's troops approached Moscow. The city was not blocked, the Tatar hundreds only circled around the city, robbing villages. Several Tatars approached the walls and they asked the defenders if Prince Dmitry Ivanovich was in the city. Having received a negative answer, the Tatars began to carry out reconnaissance. Muscovites insulted and mocked them.
On the morning of August 24, the main forces of Tokhtamysh went out to the walls. After the shootout, the Tatars went to storm the city, hoping to take the city in stride, taking advantage of the absence of the Grand Duke and his forces. However, the townspeople repulsed all attacks with great damage to the attackers. Horde was fired from "mattresses", crossbows, poured boiling water and resin. The walls, with a sufficient number of defenders and protective equipment, were impregnable. August 25, the enemy went to the second assault, but he was repelled.
The army of Tokhtamysh suffered significant losses and could not waste time on the siege, at this moment princes Dmitry and Vladimir Serpukhovsky gathered troops, peasants gathered in troops and attacked the enemy, the situation changed every day not in favor of the Tatar troops. Tokhtamysh decided to use a military trick. On August 26, through the Suzdal princes, they were siblings to the wife of the Moscow Grand Duke, Grand Duchess Evdokia, he offered the townspeople an honorable peace, on condition that they let the Tatar embassy into Moscow. Believing the enemy and the traitors was very stupid, but the drunken crowd (the townspeople had been drunk for several days) accepted the condition of Tokhtamysh. Princes Basil Kirdyapa and Simon swore an oath on the cross.
The Tatar embassy came to meet the Prince of Osteys, the clergy, noble and simple people. Gate protection is not provided. The Tatar embassy penetrated into the city, and the rest of the enemy army rushed after it, the slaughter began. The first was slaughtered prince Ostey. Priests and other people began to cut him down. The townspeople were taken by surprise and could not organize resistance, there was a massacre and plunder throughout the city. Tatars captured the grand duke's treasury, a huge number of values, the city burned out. The entire population was slaughtered, burned, or gone into full. Upon further calculation, it turned out that only the dead citizens - about 24 thousand people. When the Grand Duke of Moscow and Vladimir Dmitri Ivanovich returned to Moscow, he saw only "smoke, ashes, bloody land, corpses and empty charred churches."
Capture of Moscow by False Dmitry I
In 1603, active preparations began for the seizure of Moscow and the building of a False Dmitry on the Russian throne. Voivode Mnishek recruited a small army for his future son-in-law — just over 3,000 people, with whom in the fall of 1604 the Falsite entered Russia. The success of the campaign contributed to the unrest of the peasants of the southern regions of Russia.
Several cities surrendered to him without a fight, and were supported by Russian feudal lords, townspeople and servicemen, Cossacks and peasants of these regions. Although in January 1605 the invaders were defeated near the village of Dobrynichi, they managed to gain a foothold in Putivl. And after the sudden death of Boris Godunov, part of the Russian army led by voivod P. Basmanov took the side of an impostor. Muscovites also supported the invaders and rebels against the government of Godunov. In June 1605, an uprising broke out in Moscow, as a result of which the government of the Godunovs was overthrown. After luring some people of Godunov to his side and taking advantage of the schism among the Moscow nobility, the False Dmitry sent people to seize the city.
“The oath of False Dmitry I to the Polish king Sigismund III on the introduction of Catholicism in Russia” (N.Nevrev, 1874)
Proclaimed king Fedor Godunov was killed. Only then, convinced of the support of the nobles and the people, did the False Dmitry move to the capital and on June 20, 1605 solemnly entered Moscow. To prove the "royal" origin, he staged his "confession" by the mother of the present Tsarevich Dmitry, Maria Nagaya. Patriarch Job was deposed and in his place was erected by the archbishop of Ryazan, the Greek Ignatius, who on July 31 and crowned the Falsite with the kingdom.
Polish-Lithuanian occupation of Moscow
In October-November 1610, Polish-Lithuanian troops of Stanislav Zolkiewski entered Moscow without a fight. Since the beginning of August, Zolkiewski has been camping on Khoroshevsky meadows and Khodynka field. He entered the city under the pressure of the king.
At the end of 1610, about 6,000 fighters of armored and hussar banners, 800 foreign infantry, 400 haiduks were deployed in Moscow and the Novodevichy Convent.
Zolkiewski placed troops in Moscow in such a way that in the event of an attack they could come to help each other or retreat to the Kremlin. A significant part of the garrison was located west of the Kremlin wall near the Neglinnaya River. To maintain order, a tribunal was established, in which the Russian side was represented by Grigory Romodanovsky and Ivan Streshnev, and the Polish-Lithuanian side was represented by Alexander Korychinsky and the lieutenant Malynsky.
When Zolkiewski went to Smolensk for a meeting with Sigismund III in November, he took his regiments with him, but several units were left at the Novodevichy Convent to control the roads to Mozhaisk and Volokolamsk.
Capture of Moscow by Napoleon
On September 8, Kutuzov ordered a retreat to Mozhaisk with the firm intention to keep the army. At 4:00 pm on September 13 in the village of Fili, Kutuzov ordered the generals to meet for a meeting on a further plan of action. Most of the generals were in favor of a new general battle with Napoleon. Then Kutuzov stopped the meeting and said that he was ordering a retreat.
September 14, the Russian army passed through Moscow and entered the Ryazan road (southeast of Moscow). Toward evening, Napoleon entered Moscow, deserted.
On September 14, Napoleon occupied Moscow without a fight, and already on the night of the same day, the city was engulfed in a fire, which by the night of September 15 grew so strong that Napoleon was forced to leave the Kremlin. The fire raged until September 18 and destroyed most of Moscow. The cause of the fire remained unclear until the end, whether patriotic citizens set fire to their city, or whether the fire arose because of drunken robberies of the city. Up to 400 lower class citizens were shot by military martial on suspicion of arson.
Kutuzov, retreating from Moscow to the south on the Ryazan road, made the famous Tarutinsky maneuver. Kutuzov drove the pursuing cavalrymen Murat off the track, turned west from the Ryazan road through Podolsk to the old Kaluga road, where he left on September 20 in the area of Krasnaya Pakhra (near the present-day Troitsk).
Then, making sure of a disadvantageous position, by October 2, Kutuzov transferred the army south to the village of Tarutino, which lies along the old Kaluga road in the Kaluga region not far from the border with Moscow. This maneuver Kutuzov blocked the main roads to Napoleon in the southern provinces, and also created a constant threat to the rear communications of the French.
Capture of Moscow by the Crimean Khan Devlet-Girey
Crimean Khan Devlet-Girey was known for its numerous military campaigns, mainly wars with the Russian state. He sought to restore the independence of the Kazan and Astrakhan khanates, conquered by Russian Tsar Ivan IV the Terrible in 1552 and 1556.
In the spring of 1571, Khan Devlet-Girey gathered a large army. According to various sources, it numbered from 40,000 to 120,000 thousand of the Crimean horde and legs. The main forces of the Russian kingdom at that moment were connected by the Livonian War, so the governors on the Oka had at their disposal no more than 6,000 warriors. The Crimean horde passed the Oka bypassing Serpukhov, where Ivan the Terrible stood with the oprichnich army, and rushed to Moscow.
On May 24, the Crimean Khan Devlet Gerai, with the main forces, approached the outskirts of Moscow and became a camp in the village of Kolomenskoye. Khan sent a 20-thousand army to Moscow, ordering the city suburbs to be set on fire. In three hours the Russian capital was almost completely burned out. The Kremlin and the city of Devlet-Girei, surrounded by stone walls, never entered. The regiment of the governor Mikhail Vorotynsky repulsed all the attacks of the Crimeans. On May 25, Devlet Gerai with the Tatar horde retreated from under the capital to the south in the direction of Kashira and Ryazan, disbanding part of their troops to capture prisoners. As a result of the Moscow campaign, the Crimean Khan Devlet I received the nickname "Taking the Throne". Khan's people killed 60 thousand people in Russia and more than 150 thousand were taken into slavery. In the following years, the Crimean Khan Devlet-Girey personally did not raid Russian possessions. Only his sons, separate Crimean and Nogai Murzy with a small force attacked the Moscow suburbs.