Mediterranean Russian Admiral Senyavin

Study in the building

In his old age, Senyavin will describe his early years in an idyllic form. The maritime service of “the times of Ochakov and the subjugations of the Crimea” was beautiful: “... people were cheerful, ruddy, and they smelled of freshness and health, - but look at the fruit, but you will see - pallor, bile, dull eyes and one step to the hospital and the cemetery. " Until the end of life, the son of those glorious times of the Suvorov spirit and his “science of victory.” According to the biographer Bronevsky: “Senyavin, modest and meek-minded, strict and exacting in service, was loved like a father, respected as a just and trustworthy boss. He knew the very important art of acquiring love and using it alone for the common good. ”

Dmitry Nikolaevich Senyavin

Conflict with Ushakov and Potemkin's Prophecy

This campaign Senyavin came already having experience of service. In 1780-1781, he was part of a squadron off the coast of Portugal, which supported the armed neutrality of Russia during the War of Independence of the United States of America. However, most of the sea voyages of Senyavin were associated with activities in the basins of the Black and Mediterranean Seas. In 1782 he transferred to the corvette "Hotin", consisting in the Azov fleet. As the closest assistant to Admiral Mekenzi, he participates in the construction of a new Russian naval base in Sevastopol, where he was noticed by the Governor-General of Novorossia, Prince Potemkin.

The attack of the Turkish fleet by squadron of Rear Admiral A. Greig - a picture from the book of V. B. Bronevsky "Notes of a naval officer"

The Russian-Turkish war, which began in 1787, contributed to the rapid growth of a career. Senyavin brilliantly showed himself during the storm of September 9–11, 1787 and in the battle near the island of Fidonisi on July 3, 1788. He had the honor of personally informing the empress, after which he was appointed adjutant-general under Potemkin with the rank of 2nd rank captain. In the autumn of the same year, he participated in actions to support the siege of Ochakov from the sea, for which he receives Georgy 4th degree, and in 1791 as commander of the ship he is different in the Battle of Kaliakria, where, according to the chief of the Russian squadron Ushakov, “rendered courage and courage. "

Senyavin on the Monument "1000th anniversary of Russia" in Veliky Novgorod

However, with Fedor Fedorovich, Senyavin will have a conflict. Dmitry Nikolaevich will accuse Ushakov of excessive caution. Fyodor Ushakov accused him of sabotage, because instead of “quite healthy sailors,” he seconded the newly built ships to Kherson and Taganrog sick and untrained. Potemkin, supporting the chain of command, deprived Senyavin of the rank of adjutant general, removed from the post of commander of the ship and sent him under arrest. The conflict was resolved thanks to the generosity of Ushakov, who, at the conciliatory meeting with Senyavin, "embraced with tears in his eyes, kissed him, and from his pure heart forgave him everything that had passed." Pleased with reconciliation, in a letter to Ushakov, Potemkin foreshadowed Senyavin a glorious fate: “He will be a great admiral in time, and may even surpass you himself!” Ushakov agreed.

View of the island and the fortress of Tenedos

Mediterranean campaign. Career zenith

The Napoleonic Wars provided a wide range of opportunities for commanders-in-chief. In 1805-1807, a Mediterranean expedition was undertaken. Commanded naval chief of Revel Dmitry Senyavin. He was promoted to vice admiral and sent to Corfu at the location of the Russian military base in the Mediterranean.

Corfu was the main of the seven Ionian islands. Once they belonged to the Venetian Republic, and after its liquidation as a result of Napoleon’s first Italian campaign, France was ceded. During the Mediterranean expedition led by Ushakov, the French were expelled. Over the islands, which received the status of a republic with their own constitution, the nominal sovereignty of allied Turkey was established, but under the auspices of Russia. During 1804−1806 The Russian military presence in the region was rapidly increasing, and by the time Senyavin arrived, there were 10 battleships, 4 corvettes, 7 auxiliary ships, 12 gunboats, 1,200 artillery barrels, 8,000 men in ship crews and 15,000 marines.

Battle of the Dardanelles

In the second half of 1806, the influence of France on the Ottoman government increased, which led to the beginning of the next Russian-Turkish war. The Russian plan for launching the campaign envisaged the creation of a solid front line from the Adriatic to the Danube with the help of the Montenegrins, the rebel Serbs of Belgrade for lightning coercion of the Ports for peace and restoration with her alliance directed against France. Squadron Senyavina, first of all, was to jointly with the English fleet and with the support of the Black Sea fleet to strike at Constantinople. For many reasons, including due to differences with London in views on the planned “new order” in the Balkan region and the Eastern Mediterranean, this plan was not implemented. Nevertheless, Senyavin managed to block the Dardanelles and defeat the Turkish fleet in the battle in this strait on May 10 (22) - 11 (23) and in the Battle of Athos on June 19 (July 1), 1807. However, after the conclusion of the Peace of Tilsit, all Russian armed forces on the Mediterranean were evacuated.

Postage stamp of the USSR, 1987

Russian ships in storage in England

The ships under the leadership of Senyavin failed to return quickly to their homeland. Due to a strong storm, the ships of the Senyavin entered Lisbon. Portugal by that time was liberated by the British. Russia reconciled with their enemy. Not wanting to fight on the side of Napoleonic France, Senyavin secured an agreement on the transfer of his squadron "to the British government" (the sailors were able to return home earlier - in 1809), which demonstrated the admiral's diplomatic skills, because of the escalation of the conflict between St. Petersburg and London only to Napoleon. And yet this episode became the pretext of the royal opals (so that the Decembrists even thought about Senyavin's entry into the revolutionary government), which was replaced by mercy only during the next emperor. The admiral met the preparations for the new Russian-Turkish war as commander of the Baltic fleet, although he hoped to stand at the head of the Black Sea group. And the last voyage of the admiral was the farewell in 1827 of a detachment of ships departing for operations in the Mediterranean and then taking part in the Navarin battle, to Portsmouth, the former place of "storage" of his squadron.

Watch the video: The Royal Navy's Dardanelles Operation Against The Ottoman Empire (January 2020).