Anatoly Zheleznyakov was a native of the village of Fedoskino, which at the end of the XIX century belonged to the Moscow province. He was born in an ordinary family in 1895, and his life until a certain stage was quite banal. Anatoly strongly disagreed with this. He was too bored with the flow. Due to the difficult nature of problems with study, quickly developed into an open conflict. And this story ended and sad at all: Zheleznyakov was disgraced in disgrace from the Military Medical Assistant School. He refused to participate in the parade dedicated to the birthday of the wife of the late Alexander III Maria Feodorovna. Caprice, to which the future anarchist went consciously.
At first Zheleznyakov returned home and managed to find a job. But soon there was a conflict with the leadership, because of which the guy was fired. Realizing that in his native village there is nothing to catch, Anatoly moved to his brother in Odessa. Replacing several activities, he, as they say, went to "conquer" Moscow.
In 1914, when World War I broke out, Zheleznyakova was mobilized. At first he was sent to mechanics courses, but because of yet another conflict, he was “transferred” to the ship “Ocean”, determined to the firemen. Here he quarreled with one of the officers and was forced to desert because he was threatened by a tribunal. Hiding in the suburbs under the name of Viktorov, he got his comrades with revolutionary views. With their help, he was soon able to relocate to Novorossiysk. In his personal diary, Anatoly Grigorievich wrote: “The New Year 1917! What do you give me of the three things that lie in my way? Death, freedom or imprisonment? I am not afraid, and I boldly look forward, for I believe that I will win. ” Argued that he was thinking to go overseas, but found out about the revolutionary wave and decided to stay. Zheleznyakov left a diary entry after his participation in the sailors rally: “I go out, speak and begin to live the life I dreamed of, the life of a public figure. Writing laziness, deeds is the abyss ... But who am I? "
Soon Zheleznyakov reached the Kronstadt Council of Deputies and became an active participant in the maelstrom of events. Anatoly supported the Bolsheviks, agitated the people to engage in revolutionary activities and resisted the soldiers of the Provisional Government. During one skirmish, the guy threw several grenades at his opponents. This is not forgiven. And after a while, Zheleznyakov found himself in Kresty. True, he soon managed to escape from there.
"I am the head of the palace guard"
During the October Revolution Zheleznyakov was on the first cast. He participated in the seizure of the Admiralty and the storming of the Winter Palace. But his “finest hour” came at the very beginning of 1918. Then the Constituent Assembly sat down in the Tauride Palace in order to decide which way the country would go further. The Bolsheviks, inferior in numbers to both the Mensheviks and the Social Revolutionaries, decided to act aggressively and firmly. The chairman of Tsentrobalt, Pavel Efimovich Dybenko, received an order from Lenin to disperse the “Constituent” by the forces of Kronstadt sailors.
The soldiers under the command of Zheleznyakov morally tried to pressure the crowd and the main speaker of the meeting, Viktor Chernov. This was done so that they approved the documents proposed by the Bolsheviks. But the meeting was held, because no one wanted to give power to Lenin and his supporters. After a verbal skirmish, the Bolsheviks and their allies left the meeting, and the rest continued to decide the fate of the country. It was then that Dybenko and ordered Zheleznyakov to disperse "this talker." Anatoly executed the order.
At 5 o'clock in the morning he took a seat on the podium and said: “I ask you to stop the meeting, because the guard is tired!” Naturally, the participants in response tried to rebel as vigorously as possible. But Anatoly G. defiantly ignored discontent. He pointed to the exit and said: “I am the head of the palace’s guard and have instructions from Commissioner Dybenko.” And then he repeated the phrase that went down in history: “Your chatter is not needed by the working people. I repeat: the guard is tired! ”
These words were followed by events about which there is no consensus. One version says that the deputies dutifully left the palace, afraid to mess with the sailors. Another argues that Chernov disobeyed and brought the meeting to a close. True, in the morning, when the deputies decided to resume the “talker”, they were not allowed into the palace by sailors, who in the arsenal had not only machine guns, but also guns. Zheleznyakov himself later recalled: “We entered the hall and demanded to separate, because we were tired. And these cowards ran away! But if it were necessary to use a weapon against the enemies of the revolution, our hand would not have trembled. To protect the power of the Soviets, we are ready for anything! ”
Anatoly G. became a true hero. He fought with the Romanians in Bessarabia, fought with the Germans, actively opposed the Brest peace. But after the conflict with the Bolsheviks (precisely because of the negotiations on Russia's withdrawal from the war), the anarchists fell into disgrace. Zheleznyakov had to make a difficult choice. And he stood under the red banners of Lenin, although he was not satisfied with his policies.
Then a new phase of active opposition with the “white bone” began. Anatoly fought on the southern front with the army of ataman Krasnov, but, let's say, a little overdone. The fact is that civilians suffered from the actions of Zheleznyakov and his fighters. To deal with the problem, Nikolay Podvoisky was sent to meet with Anatoly. But these plans did not come true, because Zheleznyakov derailed the train and disappeared. But Podvoisky survived and informed the “top” of the actions of the anarchist.
When the passions subsided a bit, Anatoly Grigorievich returned to the front. In 1919, he fought against Ataman Grigoriev. Then - the confrontation with parts of Denikin and Shkuro. In these hostilities Zheleznyakov took part as commander of an armored train.
On July 25, 1919, Anatoly learned that the Cossacks occupied Verkhovtsevo station. Zheleznyakov, who headed the armored train, decided that it was necessary to break through with the battle. It is known that in that battle he showed himself to be a true brave man - Anatoly Grigorievich Mastrersky shot off "class enemies", holding pistols in both hands.
But it was this battle that became fatal for the hero. The train had already passed the station when Zheleznyakov was mortally wounded. He died the next day.
True, there is a perception that Zheleznyakov did not die at all from a Cossack bullet. The Soviet intelligence officer, Nadezhda Ulanovskaya, said this: “There is a version that Bolsheviks killed Zheleznyakov: by the time he got to the south, they had accounts with him as an anarchist, he was outlawed. They gave him a Bolshevik as a deputy, after the death of Zheleznyakov he became a commander, but the soldiers didn’t like him ... There is reason to believe that this Bolshevik shot him dead and wounded him in the back during the battle. That's just not a single proof in defense of this version.
The hero of the revolution was only 24 years old, but in such a short time he managed to write his name in history.
- Image for lead: stalingrad.vpravda.ru
- Image for the announcement of the material on the main page: pics.meshok.net
- MPPronin. "Anatoly Zheleznyakov"
- M.A. Elizarov. "Left-wing extremism in the fleet during the revolution of 1917 and the civil war: February 1917 - March 1921"
- I.Ye.Amursky. "Sailor Zheleznyakov"
- V.D.Bonch-Bruevich. "Terrible in the revolution. Sailors and sense of justice"