A. Kuznetsov: Ivan Sukhinov was a man, even in those days, quite an outstanding biography. As a young man, he volunteered as a volunteer, joined one of the hussar regiments and took part in the wars that preceded the Patriotic War of 1812. Then the year 1812 was part of the 3rd Army and foreign campaigns. In the latter, by the way, he fought very famously, was wounded several times. After the war, Sukhinov was promoted to non-commissioned officer. Well, then, as stated in many sources, “upon granting a certificate of nobility” was first renamed junkers, then sub-ensigns, and finally received the first officer’s rank of ensign.
When our hero in 1828 made a speech in Zerentuy, received special instructions at the place of residence of his parents to investigate his roots. It is not very clear why, but still ... As a result, it was found out that Sukhinov’s father, a retired collegiate registrar who served under the judicial department, owned a land plot of more than one hundred dessiatines of land and owned 4 souls of serfs: two people from the very beginning, a two he inherited. That is, was, rather, not a nobleman, but a one-palace. Until 1840, the latter had the right to own serfs. That's why, it seems, Sukhinov and had to prove his noble roots, although one of his brothers served in the 2nd Marine Regiment as a captain.
One way or another, but our hero became an officer. He was still listed in the hussars, but then he was transferred to the Chernigov regiment, in the infantry. Apparently, due to lack of funds. Still, in order to serve in the cavalry, the officer needed considerable sums.
And so in 1825, shortly before the Chernigov regiment's demonstration, Sukhinov, with the assignment of the rank of lieutenant, was again transferred to a hussar regiment. However, he did not have time to leave for a new duty station, becoming, as is well known, the most active participant in the Decembrist uprising (in Muravyev-Apostol, our hero commanded the rearguard).
What ended the revolt of the Chernigov regiment, everyone knows. Yet Sukhinov managed to escape from the battlefield. He mixed with the government forces and slipped away. They began to look for him. First, the rebel got to Chisinau, then to the Prut border river ... Nevertheless, on February 15, 1826, he was seized. What happened? In this case, we can only rely on the testimony of his comrade in misfortune, the famous Decembrist Ivan Ivanovich Gorbachevsky, who left interesting notes. Here is how he conveys the speech of Sukhinov, who was already at a penal servitude explaining to him what the matter was: “It was sad to part with Rodina, I said goodbye to Russia as my own mother, wept and constantly looked back at Russian land. When I approached the border, it was very easy for me to cross the Prut and be out of danger, but when I saw the river in front of me, I stopped. Comrades, burdened with chains and thrown into prison, appeared to my imagination. Some inner voice told me: you will be free when their lives pass in the midst of disasters and shame. I felt a blush covering my cheeks; my face was burning, I was ashamed of my intention to save myself, I reproached myself for wanting to be free. And I returned back to Chisinau! ... After spending a few days in the city with my former master, I again intended to flee. Again, on the bank of the Prut, the same burden of separation from the Motherland, again the same reproach of conscience, and I again returned to Chisinau. ”
Meanwhile, the police began to itch. According to the secret passport book, where those arriving in the city were recorded, the police chief discovered that the passport of the “collegiate registrar Ivan Emelyanov Sukhinov” was registered in Chisinau. (That is, he changed only the patronymic and said a minor official). The police checked all this. “Officials”, being instructed in the means to find Sukhinov, justified the assignment entrusted to them and opened his refuge in the third part of the city in the house of the local resident Semyon. Nikolaev Chernov "". “At the first glance at the passport, found under Sukhinov, one cannot help noticing the falsity of it, and whether there was a bailiff of the local police’s investigator, who witnessed a secret sign on him, was more circumspect and quick, then catching such an important criminal would have been a few days earlier whom now, having been shackled, I have the honor of presenting behind this a very strong guard, with the above-mentioned passport and worn-around items found with him. ”
For the capture of Sukhinov, the police were recovered by graces: the rank and file received an annual salary bonus, and the official who led the operation received Anna of the 3rd degree.
So, our hero was captured, convicted for the first category and sent on foot to Siberia.
And there, at Zerentuysk penal servitude, Sukhinov finally became embittered. This is what Maria Volkonskaya wrote about this in her famous diary: “To harm the government with anything has become a need for it; to free yourself and everyone was his favorite thought. He lived only to be harmful to the government until the last minute of his life. Love for the fatherland, always making up the distinctive trait of his character, has not faded away, but, according to Sukhinov himself, it seemed to have turned into hatred for the triumphant government. ”
And then this hot, very passionate person began to make a speech. The idea of the conspiracy, in general, was quite simple: Sukhinov decided to persuade his comrades in Zerentuy penal servitude, generously treating them in a pub, so that they would seize local guards on the appointed day and hour, take their guns and then move in the direction of the Chita fortress, where exiled Decembrists were kept.
And here is the first document that reached us, the first report on the Sukhinov conspiracy. Berggauptman von Frisch, head of the Nerchinsk plants, reported to Major General Leparsky, the commandant of the Nerchinsk mines: “Due to the circumstances that occurred at the 24th of May at the Zherentuy mine, how much is not unimportant have been detected by preliminary surveys until the present study, I owe it to you To Excellency to inform that in the indicated number, on the announcement of the exiled Kazakov ... ".
Here you have the main traitor. The exiled Cossack in a drunken state came to the office and opened the case. Naturally, measures were taken immediately: all the conspirators were captured and placed under a strong castle. As for Kazakov himself, he was killed by convicts, Bocharov and Golikov, but it was too late.
So, the report of von Frisch Leparsky sent Nicholas I to St. Petersburg. After a while, he received the following imperial rescript (we note that Nikolai closely followed this case, demanded that he be given all the details): “August 13, 1828. Nikolay I. Secret. The Commandant at the Nerchinsk mines, Mr. Major General Leparsky. Seeing from the report submitted to me by the cabinet that the departments of the Nerchinsk mining plants in the Zerentuy mine were convicted in large numbers under the leadership of Ivan Sukhinov, who were drunk, intended to cause indignation, but according to the denunciation of Alexei Kazakov they were taken and kept under guard, except for Vasily Bocharov, who went into hiding you must be ordered to find without fail Vasily Bocharov and immediately bring all of them to the military court, at the end of which over those who will be guilty, carry out the sentence of the military court by force In paragraph 7 of the institution of the existing armies, in such cases, I allow you to follow the same rule, informing the chief of my headquarters and the minister of the imperial court. Genuine signed by his imperial majesty proper hand.
True, Lieutenant-General Selyavin. "
A special commission was set up to investigate the Zerentuy conspiracy, which included Berggauptman Kirgizov, collegiate secretary Nesterov, and warrant officer Anisimov. During the investigation, Kirgizov fell ill, and Nesterov and Anisimov brought the case to the end. As the aforementioned Ivan Gorbachevsky writes in his memoirs, the named trinity drank heavily, worked all kinds of excesses.
One way or another, but the investigation went on. It was a long time. In the meantime, another imperial rescript followed, more detailed, about how anyone should be punished. The commission, of course, made its conclusions and finally decided: “The exile Ivan Sukhinov for the agreement of the exiles Golikov and Bocharov to a common escape with him, who accepted the intention to collect a party of exiles up to twenty people or more, to take them violently in the Zerentuy mine and Nerchinsk plant soldier’s guns, gunpowder, cannons and monetary treasury, go to other mines to the factories, break up prisons everywhere to join the men of soldiers, invite and force the living exiles living separately from the barracks have a riot, exterminating everything that only he will oppose, and take the officials who are in the Zherektuysk mine to prison and ignite it; strengthening his own bandit, getting into the Chita ostrog, where to release the state criminals, then take decisive measures with them to further atrocities; and, although he, Sukhinov, didn’t perpetuate his own conscience, but, on the contrary, refuted something different for this by ambivalence and changes in his own minds, but rather on confrontations he was exiled by exiles Golikov and Bocharov, but by how he was exiled in Nerchinsk plants in the work for participating in outrage against the highest authority, it is rather proved guilty ... to perpetrate the death penalty on him, Sukhinov, but, complying with the force of decrees of 1754 and 1817 until permission to punish him with a whip three hundred s put on the face of the mark and that he may continue to crimes such attempts could not do, to make it Sukhinov in jail. "
Leparsky, for whose approval the commission submitted this verdict, decided: “Instead of this, according to the same field criminal status and the same paragraphs, I define: shoot Ivan Sukhinov, Pavel Golikov, Vasily Bocharov”.
Thus, six people were sentenced to death, the rest to various kinds of punishments. As for the three people, including the two Decembrists who were in Zerentuy, they didn’t apply any new measures to them for lack of evidence, they simply frustrated the observation.
"Secret: To the comrade-in-chief of the headquarters of his imperial majesty, Mr. Adjutant-General and Gentleman Count Chernyshev
Commandant at the Nerchinsky mines, Major-General Leparsky
At the highest sovereign emperor's decree, which followed me by his Majesty’s handwritten signature on the 13th of last August, I executed the verdict concluded by the commission of the court at the Nerchinsk factory established over defendants exiled who were intending to be exiled Ivan Sukhinov last month to make an escape from the Zerentuy mine, to produce outrage and various atrocities, according to which those sentenced to death to be executed, namely: Ivan Sukhinov, Pavel Golikov, Vasily Bocharov, Fedo Morshakov, Timofey, not remembering the nicknames, Vasily Mikhailov, by the strength of the establishment for a large active army (except for Ivan Sukhinov, who dwelt in prison on December 1st) during this time I was shot. In the same case, he was punished with a whip with a renewal of stamps on the face of signs Avram Leonov, Grigory Shinkarenko, Semyon Sementsov, Grigory Glaukhin.
Ivan Kaverzenko, Nikita Kolodin, Nikolai Grigoriev, Anton Kovalchug, Miron Akatiev, Pavel Anedin, Efim Ilyin, Alexey Rubtsov, Kirilo Anisimov punished with lashes.
Freed from the case of Veniamin Soloviev, Alexander Mozalevsky, Konstantin Ptitsyn. ”
Sukhinov, not knowing that the hanging was replaced by execution, and realizing that he was to be punished with a whip, he took out arsenic somewhere and tried to poison himself twice, but both times the doctors pumped him out. And then he decided to hang himself on a strap that supports the shackles.
And finally, a small excerpt from the memoirs of Ivan Gorbachevsky: “On the day after Sukhinov’s death, preparations began to punish Golikov, Bocharov and their accomplices. They dug a deep hole, set up pillars, sewed shrouds, made new ones and straightened old whips and whips ... The General Present himself and disposed of the execution. He ordered that all kinds of punishment be performed suddenly, probably to shorten the time. All the criminals were brought to the frontal place, and Sukhinov's cooled body between them, apparently, was, which was immediately thrown into the prepared pit. White savers were put on those sentenced to death, and the first Golikov was tied to a pole at the very edge of a dug pit. He was very calm and asked to convincingly leave his eyes unconnected, but his requests were not respected. Shortly before the shots, he began to say something ... "I am not guilty" - there were the last words, as a rifle salvo snatched life from him with lightning speed. The soulless body descended to the bottom of the pole, now it was untied and thrown into a hole. Then they shot Bocharov. It must be thought that this extraordinary scene had an effect on the perpetrators themselves, for the soldiers had lost their marks. Bocharov was only injured; the non-commissioned officer approached him, plunged the bayonet into his chest, and ended the torment of the poor sufferer. Mikhailo Vasilyev held a volley and remained unharmed. The soldiers shortened the distance and began firing one by one.
General Leparsky was angry, shouting, scolding the officer and battalion commander for the fact that his subordinates did not know how to shoot them, and ordered rather somehow to end this very tragic scene. The soldiers wounded Vasilyev with several bullets, but they did not kill him; finally, they jumped towards him and pinned him with bayonets. With the last two accomplices of Golikov and Bocharov, almost the same thing happened as with Mikhail Vasilyev.
At one and the same time, when some were shot, three executioners were punished with the whip and whips of others sentenced to this punishment. It is impossible to imagine all the horrors of this bloody scene. The cries of the victims, tormented by executioners, command words, the wrong firing, the groans of the dying and the wounded — all this was done by some hellish idea that no one could convey and which made the most insensitive person shudder. ”
The article is based on the material of the program “Not so” of the radio station Ekho Moskvy. Leading the program - Alexei Kuznetsov and Sergei Buntman. Fully read and listen to the original interview can be on the link.
Quotes have original spelling preserved.