Help in the case of the "military-fascist conspiracy"
prepared on the basis of archival materials,
stored in the Central Archive of the KGB of the USSR
February 24, 1988
In the case of the “military-fascist conspiracy”, 8 prominent Soviet military leaders were brought to criminal responsibility: Tukhachevsky M.N., Kork A.I., Yakir N.E., Uborevich P.P., Putna V.K., Eideman R. P., Primakov V. M. and Feldman B. M.
In the first half of 1936, the NKVD of the USSR during the investigation of cases involving persons accused of belonging to the “united” and “parallel” Trotsky-Zinoviev centers received testimony from former oppositionists, deputy prosecutor. Ye. A. Dreitser, Director of the Magnezit Plant of the Chelyabinsk Region; S.V., Karaganda-Balkhash Mrachkovsky, Head of the Karaganda-Balkhash Railway Construction; I.I.I. I. Reinhold, the Cotton Department of the Regional Land Administration, and some others about the existence of the military organization of these centers, into which , according to them, included, in particular, the deputy. Commander of the Leningrad Military District Primakov V. M. and Military Attache at the USSR Plenipotentiary in Great Britain Putna V. K.
On August 14, 1936, the NKVD in Leningrad was arrested and brought to Moscow by Primakov, and on August 20, 1936, Putna was arrested in Moscow. Both are charged with participation in the "battle group of the Trotsky-Zinoviev counter-revolutionary organization."
Starting from the first interrogations in August 1936 and up to May 1937, Primakov categorically denied his participation in any counter-revolutionary activity. At the same time, he recognized that in the 1920s. He joined the Trotsky opposition and called many oppositionists known to him. August 29, 1936 Primakov in a statement addressed to the deputy. Commissar of Internal Affairs Agranova wrote: “I beg you personally to call me for questioning in the case of the Trotskyite organization. They confuse me more and more, and I cannot understand some things at all myself and explain to the investigator. I beg you to call me, because I am absolutely not guilty of these accusations. I have heart attacks daily. ” On October 16, 1936, Primakov wrote a letter addressed to Stalin in which he pointed out: “I am not a Trotskyist and did not know about the existence of a military counterrevolutionary organization of Trotskyists. But I am guilty of the fact that, having moved away from Trotskyism in 1928, I did not completely break my personal ties with the Trotskyists — my former comrades in the Civil War and when meeting with them (with Kuzmichev, Dreitzer, Schmidt, Ziuk) until 1932 G. hostile to speak about TT. Budyonny and Voroshilov ... My personal relations with the former Trotskyists were broken after my withdrawal from the Trotsky opposition, and I completely ceased to meet many ... I wrote a statement about withdrawing from Trotskyism in Kabul in 1928, in complete isolation from the Trotskyists - I wrote honestly, without double-dealing without cheating. When I returned from Japan in the fall of 1930 and saw Pyatakov, one phrase struck me in our conversation: speaking of the party line, Pyatakov said: “What is needed is done, but we probably would have done it better.” I replied to this: “How can we divide into“ we ”and“ not us ”, since what is needed is done?” ... I used to go to Pyatakov before, since that time I stopped being — there was no trust in his honesty ... After returning from Japan, I was very active in the party and the army ... I am not a Trotskyite and not a counter-revolutionary, I am a devoted fighter and will be happy if I am given the opportunity to prove this in my work. ”
V. Putna, during the first interrogation on August 24-25, 1936, stated that he was in 1926-1927. He participated in the Trotsky-Zinoviev opposition, but completely withdrew from it and did not engage in any counter-revolutionary activities. At the next interrogation on August 31, 1936, Putna testified about the existence of an all-Union, parallel and Moscow center of the Trotsky-Zinoviev bloc and his own, along with Primakov, participation in the military organization of the Trotskyists.
A statement of the arrested in October 1936 on charges of belonging to the Georgian center of the Trotskyist organization S. Kavtaradze addressed to the People's Commissar of Internal Affairs Ezhov dated March 8, 1937 was attached to the materials of the investigation, in which he reported the following fact: “At the end of 1927 ... I was at the apartment of Beloborodov (former deputy. Commissar of Internal Affairs of the RSFSR), where Trotsky lived at that time and where the leaders of the Trotskyist opposition were going to ... Beloborodov, Trotsky, Sosnovsky, Rakovsky met there ... After that, Muralov and I. Smirnov came there. don't remember , but one of the latter said: “I spoke with Tukhachevsky on the issue of our affairs, fighting with the leadership of the party, and Tukhachevsky said:“ You are fools, before you had to talk with us, with the military, we are strong, we all can, and you acting independently. " I remember this phrase exactly. I also remember that this message caused approval. ”
On May 6, 1937, the UNKVD in the Moscow Region was arrested by the commander of the reserve, Medvedev M. Ye., Who until 1934 was the head of the Red Army air defense. On the same day, data were received from him on a number of air defense workers who, as recorded in the interrogation report, caused Medvedev to “doubt their sincerity and loyalty.” On May 8, 1937, he declared his participation in a Trotskyist military organization led by a deputy. Commander of the Moscow Military District Feldman B. M. During interrogation on May 10, 1937 Medvedev showed that there was a military counterrevolutionary organization in the Red Army that set itself the task of “overthrowing Soviet power and establishing military dictatorship with the restoration of capitalism” . As part of this organization’s leadership center, he named Tukhachevsky as a candidate for dictators, Yakir, Putna, Primakov, Kork.
On May 13, 1937, the bodies of internal affairs of the USSR arrested the head of the Military Academy named after Frunze Kork A.I. In a statement addressed to Yezhov on May 16, 1937, he pleaded guilty to the fact that, together with Tukhachevsky and Putnaya, belonged to the “headquarters of the coup of the military organization of the right”.
On May 15, 1937, the NKVD bodies took into custody Feldman BM, who on 16–17 and May 19 gave detailed testimony about counter-revolutionary activities and the personnel of the military-Trotskyist conspiracy.
May 22, 1937 were arrested by the deputy. Commissar of Defense Tukhachevsky M.N. and Chairman of the Central Committee Osoaviahima Eideman R.P., May 28 - Commander of the Kiev Military District Yakir I. E., May 29 - Commander of the Belarusian Military District Uborevich I.P. All of them denied during the first interrogations charges against them, but after a few days began to give confessions. So, Tukhachevsky, on interrogation on May 26, said: “... I led a counter-revolutionary military conspiracy, in which I fully plead guilty. The purpose of the conspiracy was to overthrow the existing government by armed means and the restoration of capitalism. ”
In May 1937, the same confessions were signed by the earlier arrested Primakov and Putna. Moreover, Primakov in a statement addressed to Yezhov, in particular, wrote: “For nine months I locked myself before the investigation of the case of a Trotskyist counter-revolutionary organization and in this denial I reached such impudence that even on the Politburo before Comrade Stalin continued to lock up and reduce in every way his fault. Tov. Stalin correctly said that "Primakov is a coward; locking up in such a matter is cowardice." Indeed, for my part it was cowardice and false shame for deception. I hereby declare that, returning from Japan in 1930, I contacted Dreitzer and Schmidt, and through Dreitser I put up with Putna and Mrachkovsky and started Trotskyist work, which I will give to the investigation a full testimony about the activities of the Trotskyist counter-revolutionary organization and about all the Trotskyists I know army.
In addition, during the investigation, testimony was obtained from Primakov, which compromised such military figures as Shaposhnikov BM, Kamenev S.S., Gamarnik Ya. B., Dybenko P.Ye., Uritzky S.P. and others.
At the final stage of the preliminary investigation, Tukhachevsky, Yakir and Putna set forth their thoughts and proposals aimed at increasing the power of the Red Army and strengthening the country's defense capability.
Thus, M. N. Tukhachevsky, during interrogation on May 29 and in more detail in his handwritten testimony of June 1, 1937, analyzed the nature and features of a possible, in his opinion, war in the event of a fascist Germany attacking the Soviet Union.
E. E. Yakir made up on June 10, 1937 a large letter (24 handwritten pages) addressed to Yezhov, which began with the following words: “If you consider it possible and necessary, please transfer to the Central Committee and NKO. I said everything. It seems to me that I am again with my beloved country, with my own Red Army. It seems to me that I am again that honest, devoted fighter of the party, as I was about 17 years old, and therefore I dare to put a number of questions before you, a number of recent thoughts and suggestions. ” Next, Yakir set forth specific considerations with regard to cavalry, tank and air units, air defense forces, engineering and other special units.
V. Putna, during interrogation on June 2, 1937, highlighted the military-strategic balance of the forces of the USSR and Germany, the USSR and Japan, pointing out the weaknesses in the defense capability of the Soviet Union.
On June 9, 1937, all those involved in the case were interrogated with the participation of the USSR Prosecutor Vyshinsky. The interviewees in concise form confirmed the testimony given by them during the preliminary investigation. On the same day, Vyshinsky signed the indictment. They were accused of the purpose of overthrowing the Soviet government, seizing power and restoring capitalism in the USSR in 1932-1933. on the instructions of the German General Staff and Trotsky, they created an anti-Soviet military-fascist organization and directed its activities. The indictment, in particular, says: “In order to achieve its criminal treasonable goals, the Trotskyist military organization systematically carried out sabotage and subversive work in the Red Army established anti-state ties with the German military and systematically transferred spy information to the German general staff, as well as intelligence agencies of Poland on the state of weapons and supplies of the Red Army., developed a plan for the defeat and defeat of the Red Army on the fronts of the offensive of the German and Polish troops; prepared to commit terrorist acts against the leaders of the CPSU (b) and the Soviet government and organized a number of sabotage groups mainly in defense enterprises ”.
The charges are based on the testimony of the accused. There are no physical evidence or any documents confirming the guilt of the persons involved in the case file.
On June 10, 1937, the Emergency Plenum of the Supreme Court of the USSR established the Special Judicial Presence of the Supreme Court of the USSR to try the case against Tukhachevsky, Cork, Yakir, Uborevich, Putna, Eideman, Primakov and Feldman. Its structure included the Chairman of the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the USSR Ulrich V.V., deputy. People's Commissar of Defense Alksnis Ya. I., Commander of the Far Eastern Army V. Blyukher, Commander of the Moscow Military District S. Budyonny, Chief of the General Staff of the Red Army B. Shaposhnikov, I. Commander of the Belarusian Military District I. P., Commander of the Leningrad Military District P. Ye. Dybenko, Commander of the North Caucasian Military District N. D. Kashirin
On June 11, 1937 in Moscow, the Special Judicial Presence of the Supreme Court of the USSR in a closed meeting without summoning witnesses and without participation of the defense  considered the case of the “anti-Soviet military-fascist organization”.
All the defendants in court pleaded guilty to the crimes incriminated to them and were sentenced to death by a sentence of June 11, 1937 to death; the sentence was carried out on June 12, 1937.
Based on the testimony of Tukhachevsky and others convicted in the case of the "military-fascist conspiracy" in 1937-1939. The responsible officers of non-profit organizations and the commanders of the Red Army were prosecuted. Their arrests and convictions, in turn, led to numerous repressions of the commanders of the Red Army (employees of the central office of the People's Commissariat of Defense and military districts, commanders of military units and units).
Thus, the deputies of the USSR People's Commissar of Defense Egorov AI, Alksnis Ya. I., Fedko I. F. and Orlov V. M., deputy chief of the General Staff of the Red Army Levichev V. N. and Mezheninov S. A., deputies were repressed. Head of the Political Administration of the Red Army Bulin A.S. and Osepyan G.A., 23 heads and 30 senior workers of the departments of NKO and General Staff - E.I. Kovtyukh (command), Kashirin ND. (combat training), Khalepsky I. A. (weapons), Volpe A. M. (administrative-mobilization), Berzin Ya. K. (reconnaissance), Bokis G. G. (auto-armored), Rogovsky N. M. (artillery ), Medvedev M. E. and Sedyakin A. I. (Air Defense), Stepanov M. O. and Fishman Ya. M. (military chemical), Longva R. V. (communications), Todorsky A. I. (higher military educational institutions), Mednikov M. L. (military construction), Appoga EF (military communications), Maksimov I. F. (topographical), Bazenkov B. I. (logistics), Movchin N. N. (supply of fuel), Kosich DI (express-clothing nabzheniya) Tenants AI (food supply), Baranov MI (health), Nicholas NM (veterinary), Pertsovsky ZD (financial); commanders of military districts Uritsky S. P. (Moscow), Dybenko P. E. (Leningradsky), Belov I. P. (Belorussky), Blücher V. K. (OKDVA), Velikanov M. D. (Zabaikalsky), Kuybyshev N. V. (Transcaucasian), I. I. Garkavy (North Caucasus), I. K. Gryaznov (Central Asian), B. S. Gorbachev and I. P. Gailit (Ural), I. I. Dubova (Kharkovsky); 88 senior district commanders, 8 heads of academies, institutes and schools of the Red Army - Kuchinsky D. A. (General Staff Academy), Nemerzelli I. F. (Military-Political Academy), Smolin I. I. (Military Engineering Academy), Avinovitsky I L. (Academy of Chemical Protection), Egorov N. G. (school named after the All-Russian Central Executive Committee), Brynkov G. I. (Research Institute of the Red Army), Mileykovsky I. M. (Scientific and Testing Technical Institute of the Red Army), Bazhanov N. N. (Scientific-Testing Institute of the Air Force) and 26 members of the faculty, as well as the People's Commissar of the Navy of the USSR Smirnov PA, deputy. People's Commissar of the Navy Smirnov (Svetlovsky) P.I., Chief of the Marine Forces of the Red Army Viktorov, MV, Chief of Staff of the Naval Forces of the Red Army, P.S. Stasevich, Commanders of Fleets and Flotillas Kozhanov I.K. (Black Sea), Dushenov K.I. (Northern), Kireev G. P. (Pacific), Kodatsky-Rudnev I. N. (Amurskaya), Head of the Naval Academy Ludry I. M., Head of the Institute of Military Shipbuilding N. Alyakrinsky N. V., 22 people. from among the other commanders of the Navy, 4 employees of the Soviet military missions abroad, 7 leading officers of Osoaviahima.
In addition, on charges of involvement in the "military conspiracy" in 1937-1938. Secretary of the Union Council of the CEC of the USSR I.Shlisht, secretary of the Committee of Defense at SNK of the USSR G. G. Bazilevich, plenipotentiary of the USSR and authorized by the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) in Mongolia V.I. T., were arrested and convicted. People's Commissar of Defense Industry Muklevich R. A. and the head of the 8th Main Directorate of this Commissariat Neiman K. A.
All of the above command staff of the Red Army and Navy and other military leaders in the amount of 408 people. were convicted by the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the USSR to various penalties: to VMS - 401, to 20 g. ITL - 1; to 10 - 2, to 8 - 1.
In addition, during the investigation in connection with the death, criminal cases were stopped for 3 people, including the head of the Main Political Directorate Gamarnik Ya. B., who committed suicide.
It is characteristic that, with the exception of Budyonny, Shaposhnikov and Ulrich, all other members of the Special Presence, who tried Tukhachevsky and others, were also recognized as participants of the “military plot” and subsequently sentenced to the death penalty.
Of the 408 involved in the case of the "military-fascist conspiracy" - 386 party members.
From the available archival statistical materials it is clear that the bodies of the NKVD of the USSR in 1937-1939. 21 513 military officers of the commanding structure were brought to criminal responsibility, and these data do not reflect the elements of crimes, penalties and information about members of their families, which, in accordance with the legislation in force at that time, were also subject to repression in non-judicial order.
In 1956, in connection with the instructions of the special Commission of the Central Committee of the CPSU on the verification of materials on the processes of the 1930s. The main military prosecutor's office carried out an additional check on the case of the “anti-Soviet Trotskyist military organization”, during which the documentary materials stored in the KGB archives, party and state archives were studied, and individuals involved in the events of those years were also interrogated. В результате было установлено, что дело по обвинению Тухачевского и других сфальсифицировано, а признания обвиняемых на следствии получены от них незаконным путем.
Как указывалось выше, первые показания о существовании «военно-фашистского заговора» в Красной армии, руководимого Тухачевским, Якиром и другими, были получены от арестованного бывшего начальника ПВО РККА Медведева М. Е. О том, как появились эти показания, объяснил сотрудник НКВД Радзивиловский А. П., который, будучи арестованным, на допросе 16 апреля 1939 г. заявлял: «Фриновский (зам. People's Commissar of Internal Affairs) in one of the conversations he asked if I had any major military workers following the materials. When I told Frinovsky about a number of military men from the Moscow Military District who were detained in the UNKVD, he told me that the first priority, in the implementation of which, apparently, I would have to take part was to unfold a picture of a large and deep plot in Red army. From what Frinovsky said to me then, I clearly understood that it was about preparing a bloated military conspiracy in the country, the disclosure of which would have made clear the huge role and merit of Ezhov and Frinovsky in the face of the Central Committee. As is known, they succeeded in this, not only in the area of deception of the Central Committee by the military conspiracy, but also along a number of other lines, which I will show further on. The assignment given to me by Yezhov was to immediately begin the interrogation of the arrested Medvedev, the former head of the Red Army air defense, and to obtain testimony from him with the widest range of participants about the existence of a military plot by the Red Army. At the same time, Yezhov gave me a direct instruction to apply physical influence methods to Medvedev, not hesitating in their choice. Yezhov emphasized that during the interrogation of Medvedev I must ensure that he calls the largest possible number of leading military workers, and the more they manage to write down, the closer to the task that Frinovsky has already spoken to me. Starting the interrogation of Medvedev, I found out from his testimony that he was over three or four years before his arrest as he was fired from the Red Army and appeared before the arrest of the deputy. construction manager of a hospital. Medvedev denied any kind of anti-Soviet work and, in general, ties with the military circles of the Red Army, citing the fact that after demobilization he no longer maintained these ties. When I reported on the testimony of Medvedev to Yezhov and Frinovsky, they offered to “squeeze” his conspiratorial connections from him and again reiterated not to be shy with him. It was obvious to me that Medvedev is a man long cut off from the military environment, and the veracity of his statements is not in doubt. However, following the instructions of Yezhov and Frinovsky, I obtained testimony from him about the existence of a military conspiracy, about his active participation in it, and during subsequent interrogations, especially after beating him Frinovsky in the presence of Yezhov, Medvedev called a significant number of major military officers. Along the way, I saw and knew that the connections that Medvedev called were fictitious to him, and he kept telling me, and then Yezhov and Frinovsky, that his testimony was false and not true. However, despite this, Ezhov reported this report to the Central Committee ... Medvedev was arrested by order of Yezhov without any compromising materials with the intention of starting with him to inflate the case of a military conspiracy in the Red Army. ”
Later, on June 16, 1937, Medvedev did not plead guilty to a court session of the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the USSR and declared that he was not a member of the Trotskyist organization, and the testimony about the existence of a military fascist conspiracy in the Red Army is false. However, Medvedev was sentenced to death and executed; in 1956 he was rehabilitated.
Another former employee of the NKVD, V.I. Budarev, during interrogation at the prosecutor's office on June 3, 1955, showed that during the investigation of the Primakov and Putna cases, he was aware that both of these persons had testified about their involvement in the conspiracy after beating them in Lefortovo prison, that he, on Avseevich’s instructions, sat for hours with Primakov, did not allow him to sleep, that he did this even before Primakov confessed his guilt.
Former deputy. On July 4, 1956, the head of the department of the NKVD of the USSR, Karpeisky Ya. L., testified at the interrogation in the prosecutor's office that he took part in the investigation of the Eideman case. He explained that, besides him, Eideman was interrogated by Leplevsky and Agas, that “... against Eideman, before my arrival, threats or even physical measures of influence were applied. It should be noted that during the interrogation of Eideman from the neighboring offices came the cries, the moans of people and the noise ... ".
Former assistant to the head of the 5th Division of the Main State Security Directorate of the NKVD, Ushakov Z.M., who participated in the interrogations of Tukhachevsky, Yakir, Feldman and others, was convicted in 1940 to be shot for falsifying cases and other crimes, during interrogations he showed that he widely used to arrested illegal methods of investigation. He obtained from Feldman a confession about a military conspiracy involving Tukhachevsky, Yakir, Eideman and others.
As for the interrogations of persons under investigation with the participation of the leaders of the party and the state, some information about this is contained in some of the testimony of arrested former NKVD employees. So, the former head of the security department of the NKVD of the USSR, Dagin I. Ya., Showed on November 15, 1938: “How were the confrontations arranged at which, according to the decision of the Central Committee, Politburo members were present? About confrontations in advance warned all the investigators who did not cease to "pump up" the arrested up to the very moment of confrontation. Ezhov was always worried most of all, he called investigators to his place, found out whether the arrested people would surrender on a confrontation, was not interested in the substance of the case, but only so that the investigation would not lose face in the presence of Politburo members, and the arrested would not refuse his testimony. The persuasion and intimidation continued even in the rooms, where the prisoners were seated just before the call for a confrontation. The confrontations known to me with the presence of members of the Politburo were prepared by Nikolaev, Reichman, Listengurht, Ushakov (all of whom were employees of the Special Department of the NKVD of the USSR who took part in the investigation of cases of "military plot", repressed in 1939-1940 for enemy activities in the NKVD and falsification of cases) and others. On the eve of confrontations, new protocols were urgently prepared, which supported the testimony that those arrested were supposed to give at the confrontation. The same thing was done after confrontations. ”
Former deputy. Commissar of Internal Affairs of the NKVD of the USSR, on a confrontation with Ushakov on January 4, 1940, Frinovsky stated the following: “I can tell you one more fact about the former. Commander of the North Caucasus Military District Kashirin. He testified in his testimony Yegorov. It was decided to arrange confrontations for a number of arrested persons who testified against Yegorov, in particular, Kashirin and Yegorov, who had not yet been arrested. This confrontation was to be held by Yezhov in the presence of Molotov and Voroshilov in the office at Yezhov. The first was called Kashirin. Yegorov was already sitting in the office. When Kashirin entered and saw Yegorov, he asked to be listened to without prior Egorov. Egorov was asked to leave, and Kashirin said that they had been given evidence on Egorov under the physical influence of the investigation, in particular, Ushakov, who was here. ”
Ushakov at the same confrontation added: “Kashirin stated that there was no military conspiracy, they arrested commanders in vain, I tell you this, as Kashirin stated, not only in his own name, but rumors from other prisoners are circulating around the cameras that there is no conspiracy . To Voroshilov’s question to Kashirin, why did you give such testimony, Kashirin answered, pointing to me that he was pinning me by the testimony of such people who are more than me. At the same time, he added that he was beaten during two interrogations. ”
By an additional check, it was also established that, before the beginning of the trial, all the accused were summoned to the investigators, who acquainted them with the testimony at the preliminary investigation and demanded that the arrested corroborate this testimony in court.
During the trial itself, the defendants were under the control of the investigators. Each defendant was placed in a separate room with the investigator and was accompanied by them to the courtroom. The former head of the NKVD department of the USSR Avseevich A.A. on interrogation on July 5, 1956 explained: “... All the arrested were in separate rooms and with each was an investigator. Among others, I remember, were Ushakov and Estrin. I asked Primakov how he thought to behave in court, the latter said that he would confirm his testimony. Moreover, at the direction of the leadership, I once again reminded Primakov that recognizing him in court would ease his fate. So to speak, instructions were given to other members of the department assigned to accompany the arrested persons to court ... Just before the trial, at the direction of Leplevsky, I introduced Primakov with copies of his testimony. ”
Yezhov, Frinovsky, Ushakov, Agas and others, who participated in the investigation of the “military-fascist conspiracy” case in 1939-1940, were sentenced to be shot on charges of espionage, belonging to an anti-Soviet organization in the NKVD organs, illegal arrests and extermination of honest and party loyal people.
By the definition of the Military Collegium of the Supreme Court of the USSR of January 31, 1957, the sentence was imposed on M. N. Tukhachevsky, A. I. Cork, I. E. Yakira, I. P. Uborevich, V. K Putny, R. P. Eideman, Primakov, V.M. and Feldman, B.M., were canceled and the criminal case was discontinued due to the absence of corpus delicti in their actions.
In the 50's and 60's other ex-servicemen from among 408 convicted in the case of the so-called “military-fascist conspiracy” were rehabilitated.
At present, the Main Military Prosecutor’s Office is verifying the validity of the conviction of the former head of the radio department of the Red Army Communications Directorate, brigade engineer Kokadeyev A. N. and listener of the Red Army Military Engineering Academy quartermaster 3rd rank Pavlova VG; The USSR Prosecutor's Office is protesting the repeal of the Special Meeting decisions of the NKVD of the USSR and the termination of cases concerning M. M. Alafuzo - M. I. Alafuzo's wife and E. A. Orestova — I. Vasilevich's wife, repressed in connection with the conviction of their husbands in the case of the "military-fascist conspiracy."
Deputy Chairman of the KGB of the USSR V. Pirozhkov
Deputy Prosecutor General of the USSR A. Rekunkov
Central Bank of the FSB of the Russian Federation. F. K-1-wasps. Op. 9. p. 65. L. 98-115