According to the National Earthquake Information Center, working on behalf of the US Geological Survey, on Earth every year there is at least one very destructive earthquake, whose strength exceeds 8 points, about 18 earthquakes from 7 to 7.9 points that belong to the category of very strong, 120 strong earthquakes, the strength of which reaches 6−6.9 points, about 800 moderate shocks from 5 to 5.9 points, a little more than 6,200 minor earthquakes, with a intensity of 4−4,9 and about 50 thousand weak earthquakes that they dissolved score of 3 to 3.9. But in the history of the Earth such earthquakes occurred, which remained in the history books as the most deadly - they killed hundreds of thousands of people and caused harm to millions. It is about such disasters today we talk.
Earthquake in Aleppo, Syria, 1138
One of the most powerful earthquakes known to mankind, and the fourth in terms of the number of victims (estimated to be more than 230,000 dead). This earthquake had a Richter scale of 8. The earthquake occurred in several stages, covering the territory of modern northern Syria and southwestern Turkey, and later Iran and Azerbaijan. The peak of destruction came on October 11, 1138, when Aleppo suffered.
After the earthquake, the population of Aleppo recovered only by the beginning of the XIX century.
Earthquake in Ganja (now the territory of Azerbaijan)1139
The strength of this earthquake was 11 points. As a result of the disaster killed about 230 thousand people. During the earthquake, Mount Kapaz collapsed and blocked the riverbed of the Ahsu River, which ran through it, as a result of which eight lakes were formed, one of which was Goygol Lake. This lake is currently located on the territory of the Goygol Reserve.
Egypt earthquake, 1201
This earthquake is included in the Guinness book as the most destructive. According to the chroniclers, the number of victims was 1 million 100 thousand people. There is an opinion that the figures indicated by historians are far from the truth, and there is a rather high probability that the facts were exaggerated. However, the scale of the catastrophe was gigantic, which had a huge impact on the historical development of the region.
Gansu and Shaanxi earthquake, China, 1556
It claimed the lives of approximately 830,000 people - more than any other earthquake in the history of mankind. At the epicenter of the earthquake opened 20-meter dips and cracks. Destruction affected the area from the epicenter at 500 km. A huge number of victims was due to the fact that most of the population of the province lived in loess caves, which collapsed after the first aftershocks or were flooded with mudflows.
Within six months after the earthquake several times a month followed by repeated seismic shocks, but of lower intensity.
Earthquake in Calcutta, India, 1737
This is the most tragic earthquake in its history in the history of the country. It claimed the lives of about 300 thousand people.
The Great Kanto Earthquake, Japan, 1923
A strong earthquake of magnitude 8.3 points that occurred on September 1, 1923 in Japan. The earthquake caused the death of several hundred thousand people and caused significant material damage to the entire state. In terms of the scale of destruction and the number of victims, it is the most destructive in the entire history of Japan. The official death toll is 174,000, another 542,000 are missing, over a million were left homeless. The total number of victims was about 4 million.
The material damage suffered by Japan from the Kanto earthquake is estimated at $ 4.5 billion, which at the time was two annual budgets of the country.
Earthquake in Chile, 1960
It was one of the strongest earthquakes in the history of mankind on May 22, 1960 in Chile, whose strength at the epicenter reached 9.5 points, and a fault of 1000 kilometers. Because of the natural disaster, 1,655 people died, 3,000 people were injured, about 2 million people were left homeless, and the losses were inflicted by half a billion dollars. The tsunami caused by this earthquake reached the shores of Japan, the Philippines and Hawaii and caused significant damage to coastal settlements.
Earthquake in Ashgabat in the Turkmen SSR, 1948
The most fatal earthquake in the Soviet Union. It consisted of two strong shocks at intervals of several hours. The incident happened on the night of 5-6 November. The disaster strength was about 9 points. A few seconds it took for the complete destruction of 130 thousandth settlement. It is still not clear how many people died that night. Approximately the number of the dead is estimated at 160 thousand people, and this in aggregate up to 80% of the total population of the city and its environs.
Earthquake in the Indian Ocean, 2004
The Indian Ocean underwater earthquake caused a tsunami that was recognized as the most deadly natural disaster in modern history. The magnitude of the earthquake was, according to various estimates, from 9.1 to 9.3. The destruction affected Port Elizabeth in South Africa, despite the fact that it was located a few thousand kilometers from the epicenter. Some coasts had to face waves above 20 meters. The huge release of energy that accompanied the collision of tectonic plates, caused the displacement of Sumatra and its neighboring islands by several tens of meters. Killed, according to various estimates, from 225 thousand to 300 thousand people.
Haiti Earthquake 2010
After the main shock with a magnitude of 7 points, many repeated shocks were registered, 15 of them with a magnitude of more than 5. According to official data, on March 18, 2010 the death toll was 222,570 people injured - 311 thousand people. Material damage is estimated at 5.6 billion euros.
Earthquake off the east coast of Hons Island, Japan, 2011
This is the strongest earthquake in the famous history of Japan. The earthquake occurred at a distance of about 70 km from the nearest point of the coast of Japan. An initial count showed that it took tsunami waves from 10 to 30 minutes to reach the first affected areas of Japan. 69 minutes after the earthquake, the Tsunami flooded Sendai Airport.
The official death toll from the earthquake and tsunami in Japan is 15,892. Damage from the earthquake in Japan is estimated at 16-25 trillion yen (198-309 billion dollars).