Saratov was founded in early July 1590 as a guard fortress to protect the southern borders of the Russian state. The fact is that after the campaigns of the Russian troops on the Kazan Khanate and on the Astrakhan Khanate, the Russian kingdom gained vast territories of the Volga region. It was decided to build new fortress cities on the Volga. In the summer of 1586 the fortress of Samara was founded, and in the summer of 1589 - Tsaritsyn (now Volgograd). Saratov was founded by Prince Grigory Zasekin and boyar Fyodor Turov halfway between Samara and Tsaritsyn.
Today we remember the main milestones of the history of Saratov - a major cultural, economic and educational center of the Volga region.
The exact location of the original Saratov is unknown. The city was founded by Russian governors three times: in 1590, 1617 and 1674, and each time in a new place. South of the mountain, which is now called Sokolovaya, Colonel Alexander Shel laid the third construction of the city in 1674 at the new location. Falcon Mountain is now a popular place, from where you can see the entire city center.
There are several hypotheses about the name of Saratov, but not generally accepted at the moment. One of the hypotheses suggests that Saratov got its name from the name of Sokolovaya Mountain, in Tatar “Sara Tau” - “Yellow Mountain”. There is also an assumption that the name of the city comes from the words "Sar Atav" - "lowland island" or "Saryk Atov" - "hawkish island". There is also an assumption that Saratov got its name from the Scythian-Iranian hydronym "Sarath". There are also many hypotheses.
According to the regional reform of 1708, Peter I, Saratov was assigned to Kazan province. After 10 years, the city went to the Astrakhan province, 10 years later - again to Kazan, and in 1739 - again to Astrakhan.
A strong impetus to the development of the city gave the institution in 1747 "salt management". Opposite Saratov, Ukrainians are carriers of salt from Elton, Pokrovskaya settlement is founded. The location at the intersection of the shortest land route to Moscow and the waterway from the lower reaches of the Volga and the Caspian Sea makes Saratov an important transit point, a major center for the trade in fish and salt. Thus, in 1750, 3,264 tons of fish were shipped from Saratov with carts (in 2005, 1,800 tons were harvested).
On January 11, 1780, the city became the center of the Saratov governorship, renamed in 1796 to Saratov province.
The basis of the development of the city for more than a hundred years was the General Plan of Saratov, approved in 1812. The correct geometric shape of the blocks, the so-called regular buildings, were planned, and in the old part of the city it was also proposed to "settle" the construction of houses.
The Patriotic War of 1812 brought about changes in the life of Saratov. Many Saratov warriors were awarded military orders, and three received golden swords with the inscription "For courage." In 1813, French prisoners who were used in public works were exiled here - they leveled ravines, built dams, planted gardens. In the future, many of them took Russian citizenship and remained forever in Saratov, populating the quarters of the German settlement.
In 1828, the Saratov Tobacco Factory began its work in Saratov, one of the first in Russia. In addition to her, there were rope, leather, bell, brick and a number of other plants. Weaving workshops produced the famous cheap fabric - sarpinka, whose “motherland” was Saratov.
The further growth of handicrafts and trade stimulated the development of shipping on the Volga.
Saratovtsy saw the first ship in 1820, christening it “damn bark with a stove”. But shipping received an active development by the middle of the XIX century, large steamboat societies began to appear in the Volga basin.
The Volga, which turned into the main transport highway of Russia, made Saratov a large port. The number of city residents grew, the appearance of the city also changed; in the opinion of contemporaries among other cities "Saratov began to occupy one of the first places in the beauty of buildings and the wealth of the inhabitants."
The strongest impetus to the development of the Saratov Governorate was given by the construction of the Tambov-Saratov railway in July 1871, which connected the city with the country's railway network; Saratov was connected by a railway with Moscow, St. Petersburg and the ports of the Baltic Sea. By the beginning of the 20th century, it was possible to travel by rail from Saratov to 11 provinces of Russia. Began a rapid growth in industry.
In 1908 a tram appears in Saratov. Saratov tram system, one of the oldest tram systems in Russia. The construction of the tram in Saratov began in August 1907. By this time in Saratov for 20 years worked horse. On October 1, 1908, a test tram passed along Ilyinskaya Street. December 11, 1908 began regular tram traffic.
Considerable contribution to the economic and cultural life of the province belongs to patrons of art. In Saratov there were enough people who loved their hometown very much and did not spare the strength and resources for the prosperity of their land.
Among the first benefactors of the Saratov region are large landowners: the princes S. F. Golitsyn and A. B. Kurakin, V. A. Volsky and K. V. Zlobin, A. P. Sapozhnikov, and the Saratov merchant M. A. Ustinov.
Lenin leads a meeting of the Council of People's Commissars, which discussed the decree "On the German colonies of the Volga region"
Thanks to the manifesto of Catherine II of July 22, 1763, Saratov was for a long time the “center of gravity” of the Volga Germans, of whom there were about 800,000 at the beginning of the 20th century. After 1917, they received territorial autonomy - the Volga German Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. On October 19, 1918, by decree of the Council of People's Commissars of the RSFSR, a part of the territories of the Saratov and Samara provinces formed the first autonomous region of the RSFSR, the autonomous region of the Volga Germans.
Volga Germans are leaving for Germany under the tutelage of Red Cross workers. December 2nd 1929 Swinemunde
Collectivization in the German countryside had sad consequences. According to historians' estimates, thousands of the most productive peasant farms were destroyed, while their owners were shot, arrested, imprisoned, deported, or, at best, became government laborers in "kulak" special settlements.
As relations between the USSR and Germany worsened, the attitude towards the Soviet Germans deteriorated. According to the order of the USSR people's commissary of internal affairs No. 00439 dated July 25, 1937, all Germans who worked in defense industry enterprises (or have defense shops) were to be arrested. From July 30, arrests and dismissals began, and in the autumn of 1937 a massive operation began. In 1941, the Volga Germans were deported to Siberia and Kazakhstan.
The deportation of Germans to the USSR led to the decline of the national language and culture, to accelerated assimilation with the rest of the population of the USSR. Since the late 1980s, some ethnic Germans returned in small numbers to the city of Engels, but a much larger number of them emigrated to Germany.
The rapid development of Saratov was noted during the Great Patriotic War, when a number of factories and military schools were evacuated here from the west of the USSR. Until 1990, Saratov was a closed city (it was not allowed to be visited by foreigners), since several large defense industry enterprises operated in the city, in particular, the Saratov Aviation Plant, which produced military and civil aircraft. Many industrial enterprises of Saratov also carried out orders for the Soviet space program.
In 2011, in the general ranking of the attractiveness of cities, compiled by the Russian Union of Engineers, Saratov took the 20th place out of 164 cities. The population dynamics, transport infrastructure, natural-ecological potential, housing affordability, innovative activity, well-being of citizens and other parameters were taken into account.
Stolypin Square. On the left - Saratov City Hall, in the center - monument P.A. StolypinSaratov Regional Duma, right
According to Forbes, in 2013, Saratov ranks 10th in attractiveness for business from 30 cities. According to the results of this year’s rating, Saratov bypassed Moscow, Nizhny Novgorod, St. Petersburg and Yekaterinburg for financial attractiveness.