A. Kuznetsov: In the Soviet Union, they tried not to mention this case, not because the country did not talk about collaborators.
S. Buntman: Have spoken.
A. Kuznetsov: Have spoken.
S. Buntman: And the processes were.
A. Kuznetsov: Of course.
S. Buntman: And in the "News of the day" showed.
A. Kuznetsov: Yes.
And it was connected, apparently, not with the personality of Antonina Makarova and not with the desire to take care of the readers' nerves, but with the fact that all this happened against the background of such a phenomenon as the Lokot republic.
Let's start with the biography of the defendant, in which there are a number of gaps. First, the year of birth. Whether this is 1920, or 1922, or even 1923.
The birthplace of Antonina Makarova is also unclear. According to one of the versions, Antonina's mother stayed in Moscow with relatives, while giving birth to a daughter (at birth Antonina was named Antonina Makarovna Panfilova). According to another, the mother of our defendant almost immediately returned to her homeland, in the Sychevsky district of the Smolensk region. There Antonina went to school, and only after she graduated from seven classes, her whole family moved to the Moscow region, and Antonina herself - to Moscow to her aunt.
It is unclear what happened to her last name. For some reason, the only one of all her brothers and sisters, and the Panfilov family was large, Antonina at some point becomes Makarova. Makarovna - her middle name. The only more or less intelligible version, which, however, explains little, is that when Antonina went to the first class, the teacher made a roll call; for some reason, the girl herself was ashamed to give her last name, and the guys cried out: “Makarova”. (Well, as it happens very often in the villages: Makarovs, Pavlovs, Mishkins - on behalf of the head of the family). The teacher recorded this. And for some reason (by the way, this is completely incomprehensible) the parents did not even try to correct this mistake.
S. Buntman: Yeah, weird.
A. Kuznetsov: It is also unclear why this name was later transferred to a passport, which, it would seem, should be issued not on the basis of a school magazine or school personal file, but on the basis of a birth metric.
S. Buntman: Passport? This city?
A. Kuznetsov: In any case, after the seventh grade, she will be in the city.
Perhaps the only thing Antonina really did was to get a passport in the city (we recall that the collective farmers did not get passports in the early 30s), they said that the metric was lost, and issued a document just on the basis of a certificate confirming the end of seven classes. Well, maybe.
S. Buntman: By the way, in those years they could still give a passport.
A. Kuznetsov: Yes. This detail, by the way, will play its role in the search for Makarova and in her capture.
Bronislav Kaminsky, March 1944
We continue. Antonina finishes school in Moscow, and then the war begins. In August 1941, she volunteered, apparently, goes to the front. Many sources write that there she became a nurse. Well, apparently, not immediately. It seems that at first Makarova was a barmaid in the officers' canteen, and then there was some kind of waste, and, in general, she was transferred from sin to nurses.
Further Vyazma catastrophe, Vyazemsky "boiler". Makarova enters the POW camp. However, taking advantage of the confusion that was going on there, along with a young man, a certain Nikolai Fedchuk, flees. In Fedchuk in the Bryansk or Oryol regions (it is difficult to say for sure, since later the administrative borders changed very much there, entire districts migrated from one region to another) lived relatives. His wife was also there, the presence of which Antonina did not know. According to one version, Fedchuk raped Makarov, according to another, from the very beginning she herself offered him herself as a marching field wife. One way or another, when they get to the village, he throws her, says that he has a family, and leaves. A few days Makarova wanders through the woods, completely starved, goes to the village Lokot, where she manages to remove the corner (again, it is not very clear under what conditions) from a local woman.
Here we will stop and say a few words about what the Lokot Republic was. It is well known to everyone that in the territories occupied by the Germans there was no self-government as such. That is, it was, but in the very what is called, the embryonic state. The fascists put elders in rural settlements, in burgomasters in small towns, but these people had no practical independence. The auxiliary police, the infamous policemen, were also recruited by the Germans and were constantly very tightly controlled, not without reason suspecting that there were partisans among them.
But on the territory of several districts of the Bryansk region, the then Oryol and Kursk regions, a whole republic arose, where almost 600 thousand people lived, not counting the refugees, which it was impossible to count. And the Germans did allow widespread self-government there. Well, how is the municipality? Of course, they claimed the top. Initially, the head of this education, still formally unconfirmed, was a certain Konstantin Voskoboinik, a physics teacher at a local technical school, a man who had trouble with the Soviet authorities at that time. As early as the beginning of the 1930s, he was involved in the case of the Labor Peasant Party, received three years of camps, then returned and somehow integrated into the system. The assistant at Voskoboynik was Bronislav Kaminsky, a man with a very similar biography, only still incomparably more terrible qualities. And when enemy forces came to the territory of Lokotsky District, General T. Guderian’s 2nd Panzer Army, Voskoboynik managed to convince the Germans that it was much more effective to transfer control to the local population, since the specificity of the village of Lokot and the surrounding areas was that the people who did not like the Soviet government were high enough there. Perhaps this was due to the fact that in Lokt for many decades, before the revolution, there were palace lands. It was in the village itself was founded stud farm, which during the war was turned into a prison. (Actually, our defendant will be the executioner at this stud farm).
By the way, the last owner of the estate in Lokte was Grand Duke Mikhail Alexandrovich, brother of Nicholas II. And, apparently, the people in the village and the surrounding areas lived much better than the peasants of other lands. That is, serfdom in all its glory, they did not know, respectively, did not know the unrest that occurred after its abolition. Many residents worked at the stud farm, received good money, that is, they were quite wealthy people. From the certificate, which at the very beginning of the war amounted to the local NKVD, it can be judged that the mood in the area was, in general, very unreliable. And apparently, thanks to this, thanks to certain organizational skills of Voskoboinik, thanks to the support of Guderian first, and then replacing him in the post of army commander Colonel-General Schmidt, Lokot village and nearby territories were given official status - Lokot Republic.
Antonina Makarova-Ginzburg (extreme right of the seated) during the confrontation, 1978
In terms of size, the Lokot District exceeded Belgium, had its own armed forces — the Russian People’s Liberation Army (RONA), which consisted of 14 battalions.
S. Buntman: Wow!
A. Kuznetsov: According to various sources, from 12 to 20 thousand people. The RONA was armed with two KV tanks, three BT tanks, four T-34s, 15 mortars, and so on. That is, it was really serious military forces.
In January 1942, as a result of a raid by the famous partisan detachment under the command of Alexander Saburov, Voskoboinik was shot dead. Responsibilities of the burgomaster of the Lokot republic were assumed by Kaminsky, as further developments showed, a completed executioner, a sadist, a murderer, a man, apparently, a mania. Then he will lead his troops to the west, to the territory of Belarus, then to Poland. The Germans will actively use them as punishers. And in the end, Kaminsky's brigade (what remains of it) will join the notorious SS brigade of Dirlewanger, a man whom even the SS men were considered a sadist and a murderer.
Actually, Antonina Makarova will be in such a company.
S. Buntman: Question: how?
A. Kuznetsov: How did she get into the service?
S. Buntman: Yes.
A. Kuznetsov: This is just known. Makarova lived with a local woman, then, apparently, she got into a row with one of her relatives. She asked her from the apartment, as they say, advising (at least, the woman herself then stated) to go to the partisans. Makarova thought, thought and decided: “No, I won't go to the partisans”. And she went straight to Kaminsky, who at that time was looking for an executioner. He did not want to take on some of his fighters, local residents, for this post. And then Makarova’s candidacy turned up, strangers (it was not by chance that not only Tonka-machine gunner was called in the Lokot Republic, but also Tonka-Muscovite), and Kaminsky offered this mission to her.
Of course, it is not entirely clear where Makarova learned to shoot a machine gun. It is said that her favorite heroine (as well as many other Soviet girls) was Anka-machine gunner from the movie “Chapaev”.
S. Buntman: Yes.
A. Kuznetsov: But where she mastered this machine gun? Yes, before the war there were many opportunities: Komsomol members went to learn how to shoot shooting ranges, and there was a machine gun there. But practice is needed! The machine gun “Maxim”, with which, in fact, our defendant will work, is a difficult, heavy car in circulation ...
S. Buntman: The second number is needed, as I understand it.
A. Kuznetsov: I have not met any evidence that she had a second number. She ruled herself. Here, in fact, let's give her the word: “All those sentenced to death were the same for me. Only their number changed. Usually I was ordered to shoot a group of 27 people - so much partisans could hold a camera. I shot about 500 meters from the prison at some pit. The arrested were chained to the pit. To the place of execution, one of the men was rolling out my machine gun. At the command of my superiors, I knelt and shot at people until everyone was dead falling ... ”
Moreover, this machine gun Makarova kept in her room at the stud. Once the landlady (the one who advised Makarova to go to the partisans) came to her house and saw in the room of her former tenant not only a machine gun, which our defendant always cleaned, lubricated, etc. after the shootings, but also a pile of things, and trough with soapy water. After some time, the woman realized that Makarova was removing the things she liked from the dead, washes them and, in fact, folds, makes a reserve. She (the landlady) in horror asked: "What are you doing?" And Makarova replied: "Why? Lost to good things? ”
In general, many say this, by the way, our defendant had a striking attitude to everything. Here is from her testimony at the investigation: “It seemed to me that the war would write off everything. I was just doing my job, which I was paid for. It was necessary to shoot not only partisans, but also members of their families, women, teenagers. I tried not to remember this. Although I remember the circumstances of one execution - before the execution, the guy sentenced to death shouted to me: “I will not see you again, goodbye, sister! ...”
This is perhaps the only penalty that Makarova remembered. Immediately, we note that the court very carefully examined the case of Tonka-machine gunner. Witnesses at the trial talked about several hundred, about one and a half thousand people shot, but the judge dismissed everything that he thought was not completely proven. Makarov was found guilty of killing 168 people.
S. Buntman: 5 - 6 executions, if, according to the testimony of Makarova, the group consisted of 27 people.
A. Kuznetsov: Yes. Then, however, the judge said that he was sure that Tonka-machine gunners had many more victims on the account.
S. Buntman: Well, that's enough.
A. Kuznetsov: And then the summer of 1943. The Red Army is coming. Makarova need to leave. However, shortly before the Kamintsy left the Bryansk region, Antonina learned that she had syphilis. In fact, the Germans most often shot them, but in her case they were sent to be treated in a rear hospital in Belarus. Then Makarova was at Konigsberg. And so, when the Red Army captured the city, it pretended to be a nurse through stolen documents. In the end, she managed to get a job as a nurse at a Soviet mobile hospital. Here she met the wounded front-line soldier Viktor Semenovich Ginzburg, with whom she literally arranged a marriage in a few days.
After the war, the Ginsburg family settled in the town of Lepel, in Belarus, where Victor was from. Antonina gave birth to her husband two daughters. In short, until 1978 it was quite prosperous, very respected couple in the city. Antonina worked as a controller in the sewing shop, occasionally appeared before the pioneers with stories about the war, her portrait was repeatedly hung on the honor roll ...
Antonina Makarova-Ginzburg (Tonka-machine gunner) during the arrest, 1979
S. Buntman: And yet: how did the investigators come to it?
A. Kuznetsov: After the arrival of the Red Army in the village in the village, a special commission began to investigate the atrocities of the invaders and their accomplices. And in the field of view of this commission, the name of a certain Tonka-machine gunner, who shot Soviet partisans and their family members with a Maxim machine gun, almost immediately fell. The authorities started a search case, but for a long time it was impossible to establish the name and location of the criminal. Then it turned out that the performer of the sentences was Antonina Makarovna Makarova, 20 - 22 years old, who got to Lokot after leaving the encirclement. Checking women registered at birth with that name, patronymic and last name did not give any result. And here his majesty was helped by the investigators. From the “Inquiries on measures to search for“ Sadists ””: “In December 1976 Ginzburg V.S. traveled to Moscow to visit his brother’s wife, Colonel of the Soviet Army, Panfilov. It was alarming that his brother wore not the same last name as Ginzburg’s wife. The data collected served as the basis for the institution in February 1977 in the Ginzburg (Makarov) A. M. case of the “Sadistic” check. When checking Panfilov, it was found out that M. Ginzburg, as her brother pointed out in his autobiography, was in captivity from the Germans during the war. The audit also showed that it bears a great resemblance to the previously sought-after KGB on the Bryansk region by Makarova Antonina Makarovna, born in 1920–1922, a native of the Moscow region, a former nurse of the Soviet Army, who had been declared in the All-Union search ... ”
Since the KGB was afraid to cast a shadow on a respected person, they began to look for people who could identify Tonka-machine gunner. Among those were the former landlady Makarova, a female partisan who miraculously survived the prison, and one of the former policemen. All three unconditionally admitted in Antonin Ginzburg Tonka the machine gunner, the Lokot executioner.
After that, Makarov was routinely detained: she was stopped on the street by polite people in civilian clothes, in whom she, as if sensing that the game had come to an end, asked for a cigarette in a quiet voice. All the experienced KGB officers who were involved in the investigation noted with surprise that the defendant was very cool, answered the questions directly, and even during the investigative experiment, when the locals who knew her dashed to the side, threw clods of earth and spat after, led yourself absolutely calm.
Makarova, until the last second, was sure that she would be given a maximum of three years, both because of her age and because of the limitations of those events. She even made plans for her later life after his release.
S. Buntman: I have a feeling that she has something ...
A. Kuznetsov: Absolutely.
S. Buntman:... absent. Here is something, some such area of either the brain, or the soul ...
A. Kuznetsov: Yes. By the way, one of the specialists who did a psychiatric examination at the Serbian Institute (according to her results, Makarov was recognized as sane), suggested that there were some two parallel consciousnesses in the brain of the defendant: the military and the post-war, and one blocked the other.
S. Buntman: It seems to me that the block in Makarova’s head stood at each subsequent stage of her life.
A. Kuznetsov: Yes.
The open trial of the Makarova-Ginzburg case took place in November 1978 in the building of the Bryansk Regional Court, chaired by Ivan Mikhailovich Bobrakov. Zaitsev and Yamshchikova were appointed lay judges in the order of the existing order, the senior assistant to the prosecutor of the region, Aseev, supported the state prosecution, and Lankin became the defendant’s lawyer.
November 20, 1978 Antonina Makarovna Makarova-Ginzburg was sentenced to capital punishment. The request of the convicted pardon in connection with the fact that 1979 in the USSR was declared the Year of the Woman was rejected. On August 11, 1979, the sentence was carried out.
It is often written that Tonka the machine gunner became the only woman shot in the post-Stalin era. This is not true.At least two more women followed her received the highest punishment: the famous Bertha Borodkina, an underground millionaire, for stealing social property on a particularly large scale (1983), as well as Tamara Ivanyutin, absolutely mad at greed, a woman who poisoned with a rare poison of all who doesn’t like her, what is called, and prevented her from living (1987).
As for Makarova-Ginzburg’s husband, a front-line hero, he was not told anything for a long time. Unaware of anything, he beat the thresholds of instances for a long time, demanded the release of his wife, threatening to complain to Brezhnev himself. And when I learned the truth, I turned gray overnight, did not write more complaints, took my daughters and disappeared in an unknown direction.
Makarova didn’t look for a family either. Investigator Leonid Savoskin said: “Arrested by her husband from the SIZO, she did not give a single line. And to the two daughters whom I gave birth after the war, by the way, did not write anything either and did not ask to see him. When our defendant managed to find a contact, she began to talk about everything. About how she escaped, having escaped from a German hospital ... ”and so on.