Exceptionally peaceful union
At the end of August 1952, Stalin routinely met with the French ambassador. Louis Jocks said that de Gaulle perceives the North Atlantic Alliance as an exclusively peaceful alliance, which does not go against the UN charter. But there was no desire to see the USSR there in Western countries. The Soviet ideology that frightened Europeans and Americans became a stumbling block.
When the power in the USSR changed, Khrushchev made an attempt to reach an agreement with the West and nevertheless join NATO. But it was decided to act not in the forehead, but from the “flank”. Therefore, Gromyko submitted to Molotov a draft report to the Presidium of the CPSU Central Committee. It outlined in detail the foundations of the Pan-European Collective Security Treaty, with the US singling out an equal role. As proof that the project was exclusively for peaceful purposes, and not a rival to NATO, the USSR was ready to join the North Atlantic Alliance.
This offer was winning in any case. If the European partners refused it, it means that the Soviet Union was diplomatically isolated. And it allowed Khrushchev to start creating his own Collective Security Organization.
If the West accepted the idea of the USSR, the Alliance would cease to be aggressively opposed to the Union.
Thus, two documents were sent from the USSR. The first is a note on joining NATO. The second is a proposal for a collective security treaty in Europe jointly with America. The United States, by the way, responded quickly. “We are ready for this, are you ready?” Asked Eisenhower. Khrushchev gave an affirmative answer.
But ... in early May 1954, England, France and the United States rejected the initiatives of the USSR. The following was written in the official statement: "The unreal nature of the proposal is not worth discussing."
But at the same time, the West sent demands to Moscow: to sign an agreement on general disarmament, to liquidate bases in the Far East, the de-occupation of Austria and the demilitarization of Germany.
The response of the USSR did not take long to wait: “Due to the fact that the governments of the United States, Britain and France constantly declare their desire to contribute to detente in international relations, one could expect a positive reaction to this initiative of the Soviet government. However, the reality turned out differently. ” And also: "Instead of creating opposing each other military groups, which leads to war, create a system of collective security in Europe, which leads to the consolidation of peace."
"Game in the CIS"
In a new note, together with the USSR, Ukraine and Belarus also submitted applications for NATO membership. And in order to avoid claims to their legal basis for such a move, the republic temporarily gained sovereignty. This was done for another purpose - to eliminate the threat of isolation of the Soviet Union. After all, even at the time of the creation of the UN, it became clear that in the new world, the USSR would step into the arena against the United States, Great Britain and other Western countries. And the state urgently needed allies. Therefore, Stalin also offered to “enroll” several Soviet republics in the UN for support. So began the "game in the CIS." But from 15 “independent states” they accepted only Ukraine and Belarus.
When we were talking about joining NATO, we decided to act in a proven way. But the success of the idea was not crowned. USSR, USSR and BSSR were refused.
While the USSR sent notes and waited for answers, the Americans did not sit with folded arms. The Alliance began to expand actively to the east. But in order for this venture to burn out, it was imperative to “master” the FRG. Simply put, to accept this state in NATO.
England began work in this direction in 1954. Soon "appetites" increased. Together with the FRG, the idea of "connecting" and Italy began to be actively discussed.
The Soviet Union reacted with nervousness. It is easy to understand the USSR, since NATO was approaching close to the borders of the GDR, and the agreement that Germany was a demilitarized zone was violated. Therefore, the Union went to the aggravation of relations and decided to create its own alliance - the Warsaw Pact Organization for Peace and Security in Europe. It includes Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria, Poland, the GDR and Albania. According to official documents, the organization was purely defensive. But NATO has already been perceived as an aggressor.
Did not grow together
In the early 80s, when the USSR’s foreign policy began to soften, another attempt was made to join NATO. The main initiator of this idea was Secretary General Yuri Andropov. He was forced to take such a course by cooling off relations with China, which supported the Afghan opposition.
But this time it did not work either. On September 1, 1983, a tragedy occurred - the South Korean Boeing 747 was shot down. The charges fell on the Soviet air force, as the Boeing plunged 500 kilometers into the airspace of the Union.
That story is very muddy. Who actually shot down the South Korean plane is not completely clear. But the “dogs” were hanged on the USSR. Anti-Soviet propaganda began in the world. Reagan called the USSR “an empire of evil” and called for a “crusade”. The Cold War peaked.
There was no question of joining NATO.