between Germany, Austria-Hungary,
Bulgaria and Turkey on the one hand
and Russia on the other
Since Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey, on the one hand, and Russia, on the other, agreed to end the state of war and conclude peace negotiations as soon as possible, they were appointed plenipotentiaries:
from the Imperial German Government:
State Secretary of Foreign Affairs, Imperial Actual Privy Counselor, Mr. Richard von Kühlmann,
the imperial envoy and minister plenipotentiary, Dr. von Rosenberg,
Royal Prussian Major General Hoffman,
Chief of the General Staff of the Supreme Commander on the Eastern Front, Captain I Rank Gorn,
from the Imperial and Royal General Austro-Hungarian Government:
the Minister of the Imperial and Royal Households and Foreign Affairs, His Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty, the Privy Counselor Ottokar Count Chernin von and zu Hudjenitz,
Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, His Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty Privy Counselor, Kayetan Merey von Kapos-Mere,
Infantry General, His Imperial and Royal Apostolic Majesty Privy Councilor, Mr. Maximilian Chicherich von Bachani,
from the Royal Bulgarian Government:
the royal envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary in Vienna, Andrei Toshev,
Colonel of the General Staff, Royal Bulgarian Military Commissioner under His Majesty the German Emperor and adjutant of His Majesty the King of the Bulgarians, Peter Ganchev,
the royal Bulgarian first secretary of the mission, Dr. Theodor Anastasov,
from the Imperial Ottoman Government:
His Highness Ibrahim Hakki Pasha, former Grand Vizier, member of the Ottoman Senate, Plenipotentiary Ambassador of His Majesty Sultan in Berlin,
His Excellency, the cavalry general, the adjutant general of His Majesty Sultan and the military commissioner of His Majesty Sultan under His Majesty the German Emperor, Zeki Pasha,
from the Russian Federative Soviet Republic:
Grigory Y. Sokolnikov, member of the Central Executive Committee of the Councils of Workers, Soldiers and Peasants Deputies,
Lev M. Karkan, Member of the Central Executive Committee of the Councils of Workers, Soldiers and Peasants Deputies,
George Vasilievich Chicherin; assistant national commissar for foreign affairs and
Grigory Ivanovich Petrovsky, People’s Commissar for Internal Affairs.
The plenipotentiaries gathered in Brest-Litovsk for peace negotiations and after the presentation of their powers recognized as drawn up in the correct and proper form, they came to an agreement regarding the following resolutions.
Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria and Turkey on the one hand, and Russia on the other, declare that the state of war between them has ceased. They decided to continue to live together in peace and friendship.
The contracting parties will refrain from any agitation or propaganda against the government or government and military institutions of the other side. As this obligation concerns Russia, it also extends to the regions occupied by the powers of the quadruple alliance.
The areas lying to the west of the line established by the contracting parties and belonging before Russia will no longer be under its supreme authority: the established line is indicated on the attached map (Appendix 1), which is an essential part of this peace treaty. The exact definition of this line will be developed by the German-Russian commission.
For these areas, their commitment to Russia will not result in any obligations in relation to Russia.
Russia refuses any interference in the internal affairs of these areas. Germany and Austria-Hungary intend to determine the future fate of these areas by demolishing their population.
Germany is ready, as soon as universal peace is concluded and Russian demobilization is fully carried out, to clear the territory lying east of the line in paragraph 1 of article III, since article VI does not decide otherwise.
Russia will do everything in its power to ensure the earliest possible purification of the provinces of Eastern Anatolia and their orderly return to Turkey.
The districts of Ardahan, Kars and Batoum are also promptly cleared of Russian troops. Russia will not interfere in the new organization of state-law and international legal relations of these districts, but will provide the population of these districts with the establishment of a new system in agreement with neighboring states, especially with Turkey.
Russia will immediately complete demobilization of its army, including military units, newly formed by the current government.
In addition, Russia will either transfer its military vessels to Russian ports and leave them there until the conclusion of universal peace, or disarm it immediately. Military vessels of states that remain in a state of war with the powers of the quadruple alliance, since these vessels are in the sphere of Russian power, are equated with Russian military courts.
The forbidden zone in the Arctic Ocean remains in force until the conclusion of universal peace. In the Baltic Sea and in parts of the Black Sea subordinate to Russia, the removal of minefields should immediately begin. Merchant shipping in these maritime areas freely and immediately resumes. Mixed commissions will be created to work out more accurate regulations, especially for publishing safer routes for merchant ships to the general public. Ways for shipping must always be kept clear of floating mines.
Russia is obliged to immediately conclude peace with the Ukrainian People’s Republic and recognize the peace treaty between this state and the powers of the quadruple alliance. The territory of Ukraine is immediately cleared from the Russian troops and the Russian Red Guard. Russia stops all agitation or propaganda against the government or public institutions of the Ukrainian People's Republic.
Estonia and Livonia are also promptly cleared from the Russian troops and the Russian Red Guard. The eastern border of Estland is generally along the River Narva. The eastern border of Livonia generally passes through Lake Peipsi and Pskov Lake to its southwestern corner, then through Lake Luban in the direction of Livenhof on the Western Dvina. Estland and Livonia will be occupied by the German police authority until public security is ensured there by their own institutions of the country and state order is established there. Russia will immediately release all those arrested and abducted by the inhabitants of Estland and Livonia and will ensure the safe return of all those who have been taken away from Estland and Livand.
Finland and the Aland Islands will also be immediately cleared from the Russian troops and the Russian Red Guard, and the Finnish ports from the Russian fleet and Russian naval forces. While the ice makes it impossible to transfer military ships to Russian ports, only minor teams should be left on them. Russia stops all agitation or propaganda against the government or public institutions in Finland.
Fortifications erected on the Aland Islands should be demolished at the earliest opportunity. As regards the prohibition to continue to erect fortifications on these islands, as well as their provisions in general with regard to military and navigation equipment, a special agreement should be concluded between them, Germany, Finland, Russia and Sweden; the parties agree that, at the request of Germany, other states adjacent to the Baltic Sea may be involved in this agreement.
Based on the fact that Persia and Afghanistan are free and independent states, the contracting parties undertake to respect the political and economic independence and territorial integrity of Persia and Afghanistan.
Prisoners of war of both sides will be released to their homeland. The settlement of the issues involved will be the subject of special treaties provided for in Article XII.
The contracting parties mutually refuse to reimburse their military expenditures, that is, the state costs of warfare, as well as to compensate military losses, i.e., those losses that were caused to them and their citizens in the war zone by military actions, including all the requisitions made in the enemy country.
Diplomatic and consular relations between the contracting parties are resumed immediately upon ratification of the peace treaty. Regarding the approval of the consuls, both parties reserve the right to enter into special agreements.
The economic relations between the powers of the quadruple alliance and Russia are determined by the decrees contained in annexes 2–5, the second annex defining relations between Germany and Russia, the third annex between Austria-Hungary and Russia, the fourth annex between Bulgaria and Russia, Annex 5 - between Turkey and Russia.
The restoration of public-law and private-law relations, the exchange of prisoners of war and civil prisoners, the question of amnesty, as well as the question of the attitude to merchant ships that fell into the power of the enemy, is the subject of separate treaties with Russia, which are an essential part of this peace treaty, and, as far as possible, take effect simultaneously with it.
When interpreting this agreement, authentic texts are for relations between Germany and Russia - German and Russian, between Austria-Hungary and Russia - German, Hungarian and Russian, between Bulgaria and Russia - Bulgarian and Russian, between Turkey and Russia - Turkish and Russian.
This peace treaty will be ratified. The exchange of instruments of ratification should take place as soon as possible in Berlin. The Russian government undertakes to exchange instruments of ratification at the request of one of the powers of the quadruple union within a two-week period. A peace treaty enters into force upon ratification, since nothing follows from its articles, its annexes or additional treaties.
In witness of this, the authorized persons personally signed this agreement.
Genuine in five copies. Brest-Litovsk March 3, 1918.
|R. v. Kuhlmann|
Bukarest 7. Marz 1918.
Bukarest 7. Marz 1918.
Oberst P. Gantchew.
Dr. Theodor Anastassoff.
© Russian State Archive of Social and Political History
F.670. Op.1. D. 5.