The Soviet design system began to take shape in full after World War II. By 1950, the problem of technological lag became apparent, especially in the production of consumer goods. Sometimes this problem was solved by copying and revising Western analogues. The birthday of Soviet design can be considered April 28, 1962, when the Resolution of the Council of Ministers of the USSR "On the improvement of the quality of engineering products and household goods through the introduction of artistic design techniques" was signed. In the same year of 1962, a network of research institutes and special artistic design bureaus was organized.
Home television and radio complex "SPHINX"
The home television and radio complex “SPHINX” was created in 1986 by VNIITE designers Dmitry Azrikan, Igor Lysenko, Alexey Kolotushkin, Marina Mikheeva and others. It was planned to equip such houses with multimedia complexes by the year 2000. The project was focused on technical solutions, which were at the time of experimental laboratory research. The work on receiving, recording, storing and distributing information was to be carried out by a central processor with a universal memory device and distributed around the apartment across several liquid crystal screens and acoustic speakers. It was planned that with the help of the SPHINX it would be possible not only to diversify family holidays, but also, for example, to control household appliances, which means it was also the first concept of the Smart Home.
The model "Perspective Taxi" (PT) was developed in 1964 by Yuri Dolmatovsky and Alexander Olshanetsky. The PT was a small bus - compact, maneuverable, roomy, with a flat floor, an internal boot, sliding doors and a separate driver’s cabin. In the experimental production of VNIITE, two prototypes of the PT were manufactured, one of which worked on the streets of Moscow for a month and was very popular with drivers and passengers. Alexey Kosygin, Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR, personally ordered the start of mass production of PT, but even so, the concept car did not go into a series.
Model of a dump truck BelAZ-548 V, designed by the famous Soviet designer Valentin Kobylinsky in 1964
The magazine "Technical Aesthetics", 1978. On the cover: an experimental model of a fire engine ZIL-Sides
An experimental model of a ZIL-Sides fire engine was developed by VNIITE designers in 1975. This prototype was used in stadiums during the Olympics-80 in Moscow. The car turned out to be too expensive and was not launched into mass production.
The prototype of the Saigak tape recorder, VNIITE, USSR, 1987. Designers A. Kolotushkin, D. Azrikan, M. Kolotushkina
Radio "Micro", 1965−1969
Unlike many advanced Soviet developments, which were made in a single copy - for reporting - and were put on the shelf of the development department, the Micro was produced in tens of thousands of copies, most of which were exported to the USA and Europe, where there was huge demand . Khrushchev proudly presented the miracle of Soviet microelectronics to high-ranking colleagues, including Queen Elizabeth II.
Vladimir Runge - the creator of the world famous cameras "ZENIT". For several decades he was the chief designer and head of the design department at the Krasnogorsk Optical and Mechanical Plant (KMZ). In the 1960-1980s, the plant became the leader in the production of high-quality photographic equipment. With the help of photographic equipment "Yenisei" produced by KMZ, the world's first photograph of the far side of the moon was taken. KMZ produced the first in the USSR camera with a zoom lens, the first panoramic camera with an angle of coverage of 120 degrees, the fashionable KVARTS and ZENIT-E movie camera - the most massively exported Soviet reflex camera.
"Design at the company LOMO." Experimental model of the microscope. Designers I. Akishev, V. Stepanov
Alternator with oil receiver. NIIEM and Electrosila plant, Leningrad. Authors: Schegolev, Krause, Babanov, Kashirin, Umikov
November 22 in the Center for Fashion and Design D3 (Moscow, Delegatskaya, 3) opens the exhibition "Design System in the USSR", prepared by the Moscow Design Museum. The exposition, consisting of more than 500 items, will show how the design system functioned in the USSR in the 1960-1980s, tells about the activities of the most important institutes, design offices and design services at factories and plants that worked in the field of artistic design and technical aesthetics , their interaction and role in the development of industrial production.
The exhibition runs until January 14, 2018. Free admission.